Carl and Sally

Unit VIII Case Study
Address the cases of both Carl and Sally from the unit lecture for this assignment. For each
case, discuss any theories that apply to the cases and choices that Carl or Sally is making in
the case scenarios. You may also compare and contrast the theories and how they affect the
choices they are making. Be sure and indicate the choice that Carl makes at the car
dealership, and the techniques that Sally needs to employ to make different food choices to
meet her goals. Support your points with appropriate theory, research, and references, and
cite and reference in APA style.
This Assignment should be at least one to three pages formatted using APA style. Use your
own words, and include citations for sources (if needed) as needed to avoid plagiarism.
APA Guidelines
CSU requires that students use the APA style for papers and projects

Carl and Sally

Research-related choices and theory are present in the everyday lives’ situations. When
making any decision, there are many theories that come into play. This paper aims at
determining the theories at play in Carl’s and Sally’s decision making processes.


In Carl’s decision making process, there are several theories at play. He is faced with
tragedy of the commons since there is a conflict between collective and individual interests and
between long- and short-term interests (Schwartz, 2009). Carl has a tragic dilemma before him
and he has to choose whether to go by the dream car or the new car on offer. Momentary
maximization theory come in play in that Carl has to make the best alternative that fits him at the
moment. There is no time to weigh options as there is another customer who needs the offer.
Carl has the optimization theory in play whereby he has to choose the best alternative between
the offer and his dream car.


Self-control choice theory is at play in Sally’s case whereby she is unable to control he
food choices. Despite that fact that she is aware of her worrying weight and the dangers it could

cause, she snacks and makes unhealthy fast food choices, which have high cholesterol and fat.
Moreover, she prefers soft drinks that have high calories and sugar and has them at home and
workplace. Convenience is the guiding factor as opposed to nutrition (Simon, 2009).
The matching law is at play in both Sally’s and Carl’s case. In both case, there is a
consideration that minute immediate rewards are likely to outweigh bigger delayed ones. In
Sally’s case, her priority is convenience and, therefore, maintaining a healthy body weight is not
a priority. On the other hand, in Carl’s case, there is an urgent offer and the response will depend
on the reinforcement rate (Schwartz, 2009).
Rather that stock unhealthy foods in the refrigerators at home and the workplace, Sally
should replace these with healthy foods such as fruits and fruit juices. She should also avoid
visiting fast food restaurants and surround herself with positive people who can encourage and
exercise with her.



Schwartz, B. (2009). Tyranny for the commons man. The National Interest. 102, p.64.
Simon, H. A. (2009). Theories of decision-making in economics and behavioral science. The
American economic review, 49(3), 253-283.