Cardiovascular disease

Develop a searchable question using the PICOT format. (The question is a single statement
identifying the components of PICOT.)

DEVELOPING A QUESTION – PICOT

IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM
The nursing problem relating to the proper management of the cardiovascular disease and
ensuring that administration of statins therapy leads to the desired impact is observed mainly
among the patients having heart and liver diseases in the health centers. Statins are the group of
drugs that help in lowering the levels low-density lipoprotein in one’s blood. The statins are
responsible for blocking the substances that form cholesterol in the liver (Shehata et al, 2015).
The recent incidents related to the effectiveness of the statins prompts the researchers to conduct
the interventional studies to establish whether the statin drugs cause the increase of the liver
diseases among patients (Shehata et al, 2015).The statin drugs ensure that any excess cholesterol
within the body is converted into bile salts that absorb the vitamins and fats in the intestines
(Shehata et al, 2015). Scientific research gives out evidence that high levels of the low-density
lipoprotein cause the progression of the cardiovascular diseases. By the previous studies
conducted, there is a significant relationship between the high LDL cholesterol and the
cardiovascular disease among the patients. Therefore, cholesterol has been seen as a risk factor
for the high mortality rates among the cardiovascular disease patients (Shehata et al, 2015).
Taking the prescribed medication appropriately, maintenance of a healthy diet and
involvement in the physical exercises is efficient in controlling the cholesterol levels in the body.
The populations that are more vulnerable to the disease are the elderly and the smokers. The

DEVELOPING A QUESTION – PICOT 2
people above the age of fifty are the most likely to suffer from diseases. The smokers take in a
chemical that transports the cholesterol from the deposits of fat to the liver. The elderly
population is vulnerable as the arteries usually narrow causing atherosclerosis. The increased
levels of serum cholesterol make the smokers and elderly more vulnerable to the heart disease.
The various health institutions are therefore monitoring the liver function test among the patients
that have undergone the statin therapy (Shehata et al, 2015).
Joint British Societies and also the NICE has recommended the adoption of statin therapy
as the remedy to help in the reduction of cardiovascular disease related mortality rates. There has
been significant reduction in the mortality rate by about 10% which gives credit to the
intervention adopted. The remedy is significant in the nursing profession as it enhances the better
and more efficient management of the problem. The management of the disease is highly
beneficial to the people most vulnerable to developing the disease. The efficient monitoring of
the liver function tests among the patients is highly recommended to ensure the proper
management (Shehata et al, 2015). Prior to the establishment of the significant results of the tests
conducted, the statin therapy seems to be cumbersome in nature. Such a case acts as a fault to the
statin drugs been used to manage and properly intervene for the problem. The statin drugs also
induce liver enzymes which cause the high levels of alanine transaminase which requires the
testing to be done several months in the early weeks of ALT (Shehata et al, 2015). The patients
might develop obesity or the drug-induced toxicity influencing the function of the liver. In
addition to the liver function tests’ monitoring, it is essential to include the histological
techniques. Considering other factors that might influence abnormalities during the liver
functions test is essential before identifying the probability of the influence caused by the statins
on the disease. Measuring the patient’s baseline during the statin therapy while conducting the

DEVELOPING A QUESTION – PICOT 3
liver function test results into reduced cases of the cardiovascular disease which is the required
outcome.

DEVELOPING THE QUESTION
Population used is the adults between 18-55 years of age who have been clinically
diagnosed with the cardiovascular disease in the past and have undergone the statin therapy at
least ones during their medication process. The patients facing the liver diseases are also include
to identify whether the statin therapy contributes to increased levels of their illness.
Intervention for the problem is adoption of statin therapy as the remedy to help in the
reduction of cardiovascular disease related mortality rates. The management of the disease is
highly beneficial to the people most vulnerable to developing the disease. The efficient
monitoring of the liver function tests among the patients is highly recommended to ensure the
proper management among the patients experiencing the liver disease (Shehata et al, 2015).
The standards supervised process that would not involve the establishment the significant
liver test conducted which acts as a control group for the patients is used for comparison. The
nitrates used by the cardiovascular patients as drugs to manage the disease would be
administered to the patients for comparison with the stating therapy and the effects.
The outcome assessed during the research of the issues includes the changes in number of
LDL receptors in the liver of the patients. The reduced risk of suffering from cardiovascular

DEVELOPING A QUESTION – PICOT 4
disease and the mortality and morbidity rates are also measured as an outcome (Shehata et al,
2015). The time frame for the outcome would be evaluated and measured monthly for 6 months.
DEVELOPED PICO QUESTION/STATEMENT
Patients with high levels of cholesterol in their body usually undergo the statin therapy
which helps in preventing and reducing the high risks of suffering from the cardiovascular
disease, are the statins drugs right for the patients or lead to the increased cases of liver disease

Reference

Shehata, M., Fayez, G., & Nassar, A. (2015). Intensive Statin Therapy in NSTE-ACS Patients
Undergoing PCI: Clinical and Biochemical Effects. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 42(6),
528-536.

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