Back pain

I. Compose a Survey Analysis Summary in APA format, 6th edition, utilizing the provided rubric and post a PDF copy in the Electronic survey forum as well as the assignments. Limit the paper to six pages excluding title and reference pages or appendices.

ANALYSIS RUBRIC

Explain the purpose of the survey including background or historical data 2%

Describe target population and sample size 2%

Provide breakdown analysis of each question 10%

Identify gaps and themes for future analysis 4%

Appropriately format paper 2%

**There will be 0.5% deduction per APA/spelling/grammar error

II. Submit your final paper in a single PDF to the assignment section and place a copy in the Electronic survey forum for your peers to review. NOTE. There is NOT a cross post requirement for this assignment. Your peers will be curious about the findings of the surveys they participated in and may want to leave voluntary feedback. Your final paper must include the following:

a. Title Page

b. Survey Analysis

c. References

Survey needs to be analyzed

My name is… I am a student nurse and student at the University Of ..I am inviting all nursing students and faculty to participate in a voluntary survey I am conducting titled impact of Obama care. Your participation in this study will contribute toward a wider body of knowledge regarding the impact of Obama care for advanced nurse practitioners as an individual and as healthcare provider. This survey consists of a 10 item multiple type questions. You can complete the survey in no more than 20 minutes and submit them electronically. Your participation is voluntary and confidential. Because the Survey Monkey format is designed to insure that all data will be submitted anonymously, I will not have access to your identity at any time. To insure further confidentiality of all responses, data submitted will be stored only on a memory key and kept in a locked, secure place in my home office. It will be available only to me and my faculty.. While there are no anticipated risks involved in your completing and submitting the study materials, if you start the survey and then decide not to complete it, you can simply log out of Survey Monkey and no data will be submitted or saved. If you have any questions or concerns, you can contact me at . Your consent to participate in this study is implied by your completing and submitting the online survey materials. I hope you will decide to participate in this study.

1. How old are you? (Check all that apply)

How old are you? (Check all that apply) 17 or younger

18-20

21-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60-64

65 or older

2. What is your gender?

What is your gender? Male

Female

Both male and female

3. What’s your ethnicity?

What’s your ethnicity? Asian

American

European

Hispanic or Latino

Indian

Black or African origin

Other (please specify)

4. Where do you live?

Where do you live? City/Town:

State:

ZIP:

Country:

5. Which of the following categories best describes your employment status? (Check all that apply)

Which of the following categories best describes your employment status? (Check all that apply) Employed, working 40 or more hours per week

Not employed, looking for work

Not employed, NOT looking for work

Retired

Disabled, not able to work

Other (please specify)

6. How well do you know about Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obama Care)?

How well do you know about Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obama Care)? Not so well

well

very well

All

7. The Supreme Court rules that the federal government cannot require Americans to have health insurance; do you expect some parts of the health care law will still be implemented, or do you think this will effectively mean the end of the entire law?

The Supreme Court rules that the federal government cannot require Americans to have health insurance; do you expect some parts of the health care law will still be implemented, or do you think this will effectively mean the end of the entire law? Don’t know

Effectively means end of the entire law

Some parts of the law will still be implemented

Other (please specify)

8. Do you feel you have enough information about the health reform law to understand how it will impact you personally as an individual and healthcare provider, or not?

Do you feel you have enough information about the health reform law to understand how it will impact you personally as an individual and healthcare provider, or not? Enough Information

Not Enough Information

Somehow

Other (please specify)

9. In what ways would you say you have benefited from the health reform law?

In what ways would you say you have benefited from the health reform law? Greater access to insurance.

I was able to go back on my father’s insurance until age 26. I was previously uninsured

This will stop insurance companies from over charging.

No benefit to me

Other (please specify)

10. Compare to when you first heard of Obama Care, what do you feel about it now?

Sample of Data Analysis: Low Back Pain

Introduction

Back pain is the second most common neurological complaint in the United States second only to headaches. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2013) Symptoms may range from mild nagging muscle aches to severe pain and/or serious neurological deficits depending on the extent of damage to the spinal structures. Injury to these structures can include damage to any one or a combination of injuries to the spinal cord, nerve roots, discs, muscles, ligaments, or bones of the spine. The most well known spinal surgical emergency is cauda equina syndrome and has been reported to occur in approximately 2% of herniated lumbar disc cases (Gitelman et al., 2008).

Although only a small percentage of back pain is considered a medical emergency, the pain can be severe and debilitating with the potential of becoming chronic. Back pain accounts for 1 in 10 of all primary care visits and is one of the most common reasons for prescribing narcotic pain relievers and missed work days. (Shute, 2013) Studies show most acute low back pain typically resolves within three months regardless of prescribed treatments. There are many different treatment options available to help ease low back pain during an acute episode which includes one or a combination of treatments ranging from simple over the counter pain relievers and anti-inflammatories to lumbar epidural steroid injections. A survey has been conducted through SurveyMonkey.com in an effort to gather information regarding the prevalence of low back pain among healthcare professionals, prescribed treatment regimens, and prevention of low back pain/injuries.

Target Population and Sample Size

The target population of the Low Back Pain survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey.com was a group of healthcare professionals enrolled in graduate courses at the University of South Alabama. All participants of the survey are currently enrolled in Nursing 616, Data and Decision-making in Complex Healthcare Systems, a graduate level nursing course. The sample size for the survey results include the number of students enrolled in Nursing 616 course during the Fall 2013 semester at the University of South Alabama. There are 19 total participants, 2 males and 17 females, ranging from age 21 to 59 years old. The information provided by the 19 healthcare professionals enrolled in this class is expected to provide valuable information that will assist the surveyor during the course of a quality improvement initiative that will focus on improving the evaluation and treatment of low back pain.

Analysis of Each Question

Please see attached appendix A to review the actual survey and appendix B to review the data set which delineates the results of the survey using graphs.

Question 1

Survey participants were asked to choose a category which included their age. The information provided in this question showed the majority of graduate nursing students surveyed were between the age of 30 and 39 years old. This age range is expected to provide valuable information that is most representative of the general public as younger individuals tend to experience less low back pain (unless a traumatic injury has occurred) and older individuals typically report frequent low back pain due to the normal aging process.

Question 2

Participants were asked to identify themselves as male or female. Of the 19 graduate nursing students surveyed, 2 are male. This number indicates that the nursing profession is predominantly female. If a surveyor were attempting to gather information representative of the general public, it would be expected that this number would be closer to 50% female and 50% male. However, given the fact that our target population is healthcare professionals in a graduate nursing program, this number is to be expected.

Question 3

This question provides the most information about the target population by identifying the number of graduate nursing students who have ever experience low back pain. This question tells the surveyor that nearly 80% of graduate nursing students have experienced low back pain. In addition to question 1 and 2, this question is important because it does provide the surveyor with an idea of how common low back pain is among 30-39 year old female healthcare professionals.

Question 4

The question, Was your low back pain caused by a sudden injury? is an important factor to consider during the evaluation and treatment of low back pain. This question will guide the healthcare providers decisions regarding further evaluation with the use of imaging studies and to help determine appropriate treatment options. Sudden injuries such as motor vehicle collisions, falls, and blunt force trauma are all indicators that further evaluation is needed to ensure no structural abnormalities exist. A detailed history and physical examination is a key component in determining the most likely cause of the pain, therefore guiding the practitioners decision regarding the most appropriate treatment options.

Question 5

Of the 80% of graduate nursing students who reported having experienced low back pain, almost half rated their pain as moderate to severe pain and none reported pain severe enough for surgical intervention. This information is important because it does let the surveyor know that even though low back pain is most often rated as moderate to severe, typically these symptoms are not the result of a structural abnormality that requires immediate surgical intervention.

Question 6

Of the fifteen out of nineteen graduate nursing students who have experienced low back pain, only four missed school or work. This is significant because it does tell us that the treatments used during these episodes of acute low back pain did likely relieve the pain to a tolerable level to continue work/school.

Question 7

Two respondents reported missing more than two days of work/school. One respondent reported missing 10 days and one respondent reported missing 14 days. Given the fact that two individuals out of 15 with low back pain missed 2 and almost 3 work weeks (given a 5 day work week) demonstrates the severity of pain that low back pain can cause.

Question 8

This question asked the respondents to identify all treatment options that were most helpful in relieving their most severe episode of pain. The use of over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS) was rated most helpful at nearly 58%, followed by rest/bedrest at almost 53% and the tincture of time at almost 48%. Interestingly, prescription pain medications such as narcotic pain relievers were rated most helpful by only 21% of respondents who have experienced low back pain. Physical therapy, the use of heat, and chiropractic care were also rated as most helpful treatment options over the use of prescription pain medication such as narcotics.

Question 9

Five of the fifteen individuals, 33%, who have ever experienced low back pain currently suffer from chronic low back pain (pain that lasts for more than 3 months). According to the survey results, this number suggests that acute low back pain does often progress to chronic low back pain.

Question 10

Respondents were asked to list strategies that they currently use to prevent low back injuries. Regular exercise such as weight lifting, running, walking, swimming, cycling were overwhelmingly rated number one as strategies to prevent low back injuries with the use of proper body mechanics rated second. This question did not yield enough usable data. This question only provides information regarding strategies that respondents use to prevent low back injuries; it cannot be determined if these strategies have helped to decrease the number of low back injuries. Another question designed to elicit information regarding the usefulness of these strategies would be helpful. An additional question Do you feel the use of these strategies have decreased the number of low back injuries/episodes of low back pain? would help give the surveyor more information regarding the usefulness of these strategies.

Gaps and Themes for Future Analysis

Overall, the survey provided the surveyor with a big picture of graduate nursing students perception of low back pain, preferred treatments of low back pain, and strategies to prevent low back pain. The important take-away points of this survey include:

Low back pain is a very common primary care complaint.

Individuals typically rate their pain as moderate to severe.

Surgical intervention is not indicated in most cases of acute low back pain.

The onset of low back pain is usually gradual and is less likely due to a sudden injury.

The most helpful treatments in relieving low back pain include over the counter NSAIDS, rest, and the tincture of time.

Low back pain is a common cause of missed work days.

Narcotic pain medication is not considered the most effective way to treat low back pain.

Episodes of acute low back pain do often progress to chronic low back pain.

Gaps in information that were identified while analyzing the data from the survey include information on the number of individuals who were evaluated and treated by a healthcare provider for low back pain and information regarding the usefulness of the strategies to prevent low back injuries. These two gaps can be addressed by including two additional survey questions to address these inquiries.

References

Gitelman, A., Hishmeh, S., Morelli, B., Joseph, S., Casden, A., Kuflik, P., Neuwirth, M.,

& Stephen, M. (2008). Cauda Equina Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review. The

American Journal of Orthopedics, 37(11); 556-562.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2013). Low back pain fact sheet.

Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/backpain/detail_backpain.htm

Shute, N. (2013). Doctors increasingly ignore evidence in treating back pain. Retrieved from

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/07/30/206910829/doctors-increasingly-ignore-

evidence-in-treating-back-pain

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obama Care)

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obama Care): Data Collection Analysis

Introduction

            ObamaCare is also referred to as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), ACA (Affordable Care Act), or health care reform. President Barack Obama signed the Act into law on 23rd March, 2010 so as to implement changes in the industry of health care. Consequently, the Supreme court upheld the law on 28th June, 2012. The Act’s principal goal is ensuring that the Americans can access high quality and affordable health insurance, as well as minimize the increasing spending in the US health care system.

            It is worth noting that ObamaCare is not a replacement to private insurance, Medicaid, and Medicare. People with preferable health coverage can retain them. The Act also aims are regulating a number of bad practices whose purpose is to make profits in the industry. The Act comes with several protections, rights and novel benefits. According to Larrat, Marcoux and Vogenberg (2013), some of the provisions permit young adults to retain their plans until they are twenty six years old, shun insurance companies from dropping clients during sickness or in cases where they made honest mistakes during application, curbs gender discrimination, lays down measures to ensure that insurance companies do not make unjustified rate hikes, puts annual and life-time limits to an end, offers clients the right to immediate insurance company decisions’ appeal, expands the number of people under medical coverage, requires that all insurers should cover individuals with pre-existing conditions, and subsidizes the costs of health insurance (Murdock, 2012).

            All health insurance plans that are not grandfathered should offer novel essential health benefits and cover preventive services. These plans should also put in place health benefits such as newborn care, maternity, prescription drugs, hospitalization, and emergency care. The non-grandfathered plans should not expect clients to use money from their pockets and some of the preventive services they should provide include screenings, counseling, immunizations, and check-ups (Protection, 2010). A majority of the provisions have been enacted and this will continue until 2022. More than 100 million Americans have benefitted already. To ensure that Americans benefit from the new protections and rights, they have to possess health coverage by the year 2014, pay a fee, or get an exemption.

            The Act will also cover working families that have not been able to access health insurance. By the year 2015, huge employers will be required to insure the full-time employees while smaller businesses will receive tax breaks to enable them offer coverage (Berwick, Godfrey & Roessner, 1990). SurveyMonkey.com was used to conduct a survey with the aim of finding out how much people know about ObamaCare, the Supreme Court’s ruling on the Act, determine if health care providers understand the Act well to know how it will impact on them, how the reform law benefits people, and people’s attitude towards it.

Sample Size and Target Population

            The nursing faculty and students from the University of California were the target population to an ObamaCare survey that was conducted via a SurveyMonkey.com. All the participants are presently taking a graduate course at the University and enrolled for Nursing 515, Reforms in the Health Care System; a nursing course at the graduate level.  

            The survey results encompass a sample size of 12 participants who enrolled for Nursing 515 course during the 2013 Fall semester at the University of California. There are 4 males and 8 females who are aged 20- 45 years. The information obtained from the 12 health care professionals is hoped to add to the large knowledge body in regard to how the ObamaCare has impacted on advanced nurse practitioners as healthcare providers and individuals.

Analysis of the Questions

            In the attachment, the table denotes the actual survey while the graph indicates the data set that delineates the survey results through a graph.

Question 1

            The participants were to select the category that matches their age. The most of the graduate nursing students who were surveyed ranged between 21-29 years old. This age range will offer extremely valuable information that is representative of the entire community considering that younger adults are more aggressive in knowing more about health care reforms that are most likely to affect their health and well-being in addition to their young families’ as opposed to older people (Hellerstedt, 2013).

Question 2

            Participants were requested to indicate whether they were female or male. Out of the 12 participants, 4 were male, which indicates that there are less males in the nursing profession as opposed to females. Considering that the target population only comprises of health care professionals enrolled for a graduate nursing program, a surveyor should not expect to acquire information that represents the entire public from 50% males and 50% females.

Question 3

            The third question asked of the participant’s ethnicity. Out of the 12 participants, 8 were American. This indicates that a majority of the ethnicities attend universities that are closer to their homes. Moreover, the data obtained will be very relevant as ObamaCare affects the Americans only and will, therefore, be representative of the entire public.

Question 4

            The participants were requested to mention their states, ZIP, and country. The 8 American participants were majorly from Canada, Albany, and Mexico, which are in the US. Therefore, the information obtained was representative of the entire public, considering that the Americans are majorly the ones affected by the Affordable Care Act.

Question 5

            The participants described their working statuses. A majority of the participants (9) were working either part- or full-time. This constituted of the older participants while those who were not working were the younger ones. Therefore, the information gathered abut ObamaCare emerged from people who were well informed of its components and the effects it would impart. Moreover, this is an indication that a majority of the nursing graduates are likely to be employed in different sectors and that the health care reform is likely to create employment opportunities through the insurance companies.

Question 6

            The American participants were so well informed about the ObamaCare Act considering that the Act would impact on their entire families and lives. The non-American participants were well informed about the Act. The surveyors were happy that they would gather immense and relevant information in regard to how the ObamaCare has impacted on advanced nurse practitioners as healthcare providers and individuals.

Question 7

            The ObamaCare has immense protections, rights and novel benefits to be terminated. Irrespective of the fact that the Supreme Court dictates that the Federal Government has no authority to force all the Americans on health insurance, the law will still be implemented. As opposed to discarding it as a whole, some parts will only be amended so as to match the needs and views of the majority.

Question 8

            All the participants reported that they had adequate information regarding the health reform law. In addition they were fully informed on how it would impact on them as health care providers and individuals. Some of the impacts mentioned included greater accessibility to health insurance and insurance companies would stop overcharging. However, 8 participants reported they had not benefitted from the Act.

Question 9

            2 of the participants reported that they are presently insured whereas they were not in the past. These participants also reported that they were allowed to keep their previous forms of medical cover if they had any. 8 participants reported that they had not benefit, 4 thought that insurance companies will cease overcharging, and none used their parents’ insurance until 26 years of age.

Question 10

            10 of the participants reported that when the ObamaCare was mentioned at first, they were not sure of what to expect from it and how it would impact on them as health care professionals and individuals. However, after going through the Act keenly and analyzing it, and considering that some provisions have already been implemented, it was reported that the participants are surer about and trusted the Act more than ever. The other two were still unsure about whether to trust the Act or not considering that there were so many counter-arguments.

References

Berwick, D. M., Godfrey, A. B., & Roessner, J. C. (1990). Health Care. New Strategies for Quality Improvement. San Francisco, CA: Josscy-Bass.

Hellerstedt, W. L. (2013). The Affordable Care Act. Healthy Generations, 1.

Larrat, E. P., Marcoux, R. M., & Vogenberg, F. R. (2013). The Affordable Care Act.

Murdock, K. (2012). Affordable Care Act: ObamaCare. GRIN Verlag.

Protection, P. (2010). Affordable Care Act of 2010. Pub L, (111-148), 124.

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