Need to explain the below Aetiology of Asthma, Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations,
and Management of including pharmacology also need to mention 2 nutritional Risk
AetiologY: Incl.: Immune-mediated factors/Genetic & environmental, Hygiene
Pathogenesis: Incl.:First exposure & re-exposure /Effects of chemical mediators, Role of
Clinical manifestations: Incl.: Acute airway ? /Airway remodelling explained
Management(Incl. pharmacology): B2 agonists and corticosteroids explained.Other
relevant drug groups explained.
Risk factors(incl. nutritional): Two nutritional factors are explained.
Introduction of asthma
Definition of asthma
Chronic inflammatory airway disease featured by reversible airflow interference and
Aetiology of asthma
Environmental related factors to asthma
- Size of the family (overpopulation)
- Urban environment (different lifestyles)
- Childhood factors (drinking of unpasteurized milk)
Immune mediated factors
There exist a relationship between immune-mediated disease and improving
the standard of living and hygiene
The hygiene hypothesis aims to establish that asthma is caused by hygiene-
related factors. The immune –related factors to asthma includes diabetes
which decreases patients’ tolerance to asthma (Hassan&Suresh, 2009).
The hygiene hypothesis establishes that asthma is caused by hygiene-related
Pathogenesis to counter-attack asthma
Asthma is normally worse to patients during their first encounter than
during their second or third encounters.
Mild effects during the second encounter. This is so because the cell
has been introduced to the disease and therefore, responds
spontaneously during the second time.
Chemical mediators to asthma
Some of chemical mediators are used in pathogenesis which is still
consequently frequented with adverse effects (O.P.A.S., 2012).
Dispensing of ASA, for instance, can lead to a potentially life threatening
Eosinophilis plays an important role in the development of allergic
asthma. This is to prevent asthma’s patient from the effects of asthma
during the second or third exposures.
Clinical manifestations of asthma are diversified.
Air modeling is usually associated with an underlying chronic
inflammatory activity (O.P.A.S., 2012).
A patient with asthma is established to have thickened airway walls,
and as result, leads to airway narrowing.
- Air modeling is said to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and
subphenophytes of irreversible airflows interference (Hassan &Suresh, 2009).
Management of asthma using pharmacology
Asthma can be dealt with using B2 agonists and corticosteroids.
A prolong inhaling of B2 agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroids
(ICS), gives an optimal control over asthma in many patients.
Other relevant drug groups to counter asthma include low-dose
theophylline which is mostly applied to patients with severe disease
which appears to have some anti-asthma effects that ICS does not
provide (O.P.A.S., 2012).
High intake of margarine increases susceptibility to get asthma in
Asthma and vegetables are correlated.
People who do not frequent their diet with vegetables get a higher
chance to contact asthma than those who take it
(Hassan &Suresh, 2009).
Aetiolgy of asthma
Pathogenesis of the disorder
Clinical manifestation of asthma
Management of asthma with pharmacology
Risk factors of developing asthma
Asthma is a very complicated disease to handle.
Aspects such as effective pathogenesis, aetiology, immediate detection
of the disease and effective medications are put into practice,
The chances are that prevalence of the disease will decrease
Hassan, H., Suresh, B. (2009).Asthma. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
O.P.A.S. (2012). Prevention and control of diseases: chronic respiratory disease.