Need to explain the below Aetiology of Asthma, Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations,
and Management of including pharmacology also need to mention 2 nutritional Risk
AetiologY: Incl.: Immune-mediated factors/Genetic & environmental, Hygiene
Pathogenesis: Incl.:First exposure & re-exposure /Effects of chemical mediators, Role of
Clinical manifestations: Incl.: Acute airway ? /Airway remodelling explained
Management(Incl. pharmacology): B2 agonists and corticosteroids explained.Other
relevant drug groups explained.
Risk factors(incl. nutritional): Two nutritional factors are explained.



 Aetiology
 Pathogenesis

 Clinical manifestations
 Pharmacology management
 Introduction of asthma


Definition of asthma
 Chronic inflammatory airway disease featured by reversible airflow interference and
airway hyperresponsiveness.
Aetiology of asthma
 Environmental related factors to asthma

  1. Size of the family (overpopulation)
  2. Urban environment (different lifestyles)
  3. Childhood factors (drinking of unpasteurized milk)
     Immune mediated factors

 There exist a relationship between immune-mediated disease and improving
the standard of living and hygiene
 The hygiene hypothesis aims to establish that asthma is caused by hygiene-
related factors. The immune –related factors to asthma includes diabetes
which decreases patients’ tolerance to asthma (Hassan&Suresh, 2009).
 The hygiene hypothesis establishes that asthma is caused by hygiene-related

Pathogenesis to counter-attack asthma
 First encounter

 Asthma is normally worse to patients during their first encounter than
during their second or third encounters.


 Second encounter

 Mild effects during the second encounter. This is so because the cell
has been introduced to the disease and therefore, responds
spontaneously during the second time.

 Chemical mediators to asthma

 Some of chemical mediators are used in pathogenesis which is still
consequently frequented with adverse effects (O.P.A.S., 2012).


Dispensing of ASA, for instance, can lead to a potentially life threatening
 Esinophilis

 Eosinophilis plays an important role in the development of allergic
asthma. This is to prevent asthma’s patient from the effects of asthma
during the second or third exposures.
Clinical manifestation

 Clinical manifestations of asthma are diversified.
 Air ways

 Air modeling is usually associated with an underlying chronic
inflammatory activity (O.P.A.S., 2012).


 A patient with asthma is established to have thickened airway walls,
and as result, leads to airway narrowing.

 Air modeling

  1. Air modeling is said to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and
    subphenophytes of irreversible airflows interference (Hassan &Suresh, 2009).
    Management of asthma using pharmacology
     Asthma can be dealt with using B2 agonists and corticosteroids.
     A prolong inhaling of B2 agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroids
    (ICS), gives an optimal control over asthma in many patients.
     Other relevant drug groups to counter asthma include low-dose
    theophylline which is mostly applied to patients with severe disease
    which appears to have some anti-asthma effects that ICS does not
    provide (O.P.A.S., 2012).

Risk factors
 Nutritional problems
 Margarine effects

 High intake of margarine increases susceptibility to get asthma in
 Vegetables


 Asthma and vegetables are correlated.
 People who do not frequent their diet with vegetables get a higher
chance to contact asthma than those who take it
(Hassan &Suresh, 2009).
 Aetiolgy of asthma

 Pathogenesis of the disorder
 Clinical manifestation of asthma

 Management of asthma with pharmacology
 Risk factors of developing asthma


 Asthma is a very complicated disease to handle.
 Aspects such as effective pathogenesis, aetiology, immediate detection
of the disease and effective medications are put into practice,
 The chances are that prevalence of the disease will decrease


 Hassan, H., Suresh, B. (2009).Asthma. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 O.P.A.S. (2012). Prevention and control of diseases: chronic respiratory disease.

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