Assessing central tendency and descriptive statistics

This is the topic Examine a research article which incorporates a measure of central
tendency and descriptive statistics. Briefly summarize and report the measure of central
tendency and discuss whether the assumptions of the statistics were met and if the type of
data (levels of measurement) was appropriate for the statistical test. Include the following
in your paper:
� �Description of the measure of central tendency you intend to examine in the article
� �Brief description of the study portrayed in the article
� �Description of how the central tendency measure was used in the study.
� �Explanation of how this is appropriate or inappropriate
� �Explanation of how assumptions of the central tendency measure were met or not met
Assessing central tendency and descriptive statistics (p 2)
� �Identification of the levels of measurement of variables in the study
� �Description of the appropriateness of the levels of measurement of the study variables
� �Discussion of how the data was displayed (i.e. graphs, tables)
� �Discussion examining the appropriateness of the data displays (Strengths and
weaknesses? Were they appropriate? Why or why not?)
Your paper must be composed using Microsoft Word and must be typed in Times New
Roman, font size 12. This and all papers should be written in APA format and follow
standard rules of grammar and formatting. 5-9 pages excluding cover page and references
are required.

Assessing central tendency and descriptive statistics

Researchers adopt to different research designs in carrying out their studies. Some of the
designs and concepts are central tendency and descriptive statistics. The paper discuses the
application of central tendency and descriptive statistics in the article, “Putting brands into play:
How game difficulty and player experiences influence the effectiveness of in-game advertising”
by Herrewijn and Poels, (2013).

Descriptive or statistical research does not fall under either qualitative or quantitative
research methodologies. It only provides data of a population under study and it helps to describe
the “what, who, when” where and how of a situation and not what caused it (Internet, 2001).
This kind of research is used in situations where the objective is to provide a systematic
description that is accurate and factual and it provides the frequency or number of times
something happens. Most instances statistical calculations therefore determine the average
number of occurrence of something or central tendencies are incorporated to ensure that it is
achieved. Descriptive research report data summary such as measures of tendencies which
includes mode, median, mean, deviance from the mean, variation, percentages and correlations
between variables (Patricia & Nandhini, 2013). This kind of research may involve multiple
variables for analysis. In this discussion, the measures of central tendency that will be discussed
are the mean and standard deviation.
Mean (arithmetic) is one of the popular and commonly known measures of central
tendency that is used in various studies (Ghahramani, 2000). This is used in both discreet and
continuous data but is mostly popularly used in continuous data. The mean is the sum of all the
values in the data set divided by the number values of the data set. For instance, if there are n
values in a database, mean is usually pronounced as x bar (Ghahramani, 2000). Mean is helpful
in the sense that it minimizes the number of errors in the prediction of any one value in a data
set. On the other hand, standard deviation is used to indicate the variation or the dispersion that
exists from the mean or the average or the expected value. When standard deviation is low, it
means that the data points are closer to the mean and when it is high, it implies that the data
points are spread over a large range of values(Walker, 1931).. It is the square root of variance

(Walker, 1931). One of the properties of standard deviation that is used to express the variability
of a population and therefore is effective in measuring the confidence in statistical conclusions.
This article focuses on the relationship that exists between the effectiveness of in-game
advertising and on specific context characteristics: player experiences, or the emotional
experiences people encounter while playing digital games. Playing digital games evokes
different or rather numerous general player specific experiences that affect how the players
respond to in game advertising. The study findings reveled that easier levels of games led to
higher amounts of dominance, pleasure and competent and low amount of tension arousal, flow
and challenge and vice versa. When it comes to impacts of the game on recognition and brand
likeability, the findings indicated that easier levels led to a more positive recognition and brand
likeability and vice versa.
This study used measures of tendency in various instances. For instance, mean was used
to calculate the average number of the respondents’ age that was used in the study. It is also was
used in evaluating the effectiveness of the in the game advertising. Therefore, it helps in
enhancing understanding of the relationships that existed between various variables or objectives
that was in the study and helped to provide summary of information about the various responses
from the respondents. Standard deviation is another important measure of central tendency that
was adopted in the study. This measure was important in helping to establish the variations or the
variability of the scores of the respondents in the study. Therefore, it was helpful in enhancing
understanding of the relationships that existed between different variables.
How assumption of measures of tendency were met

In using these measures, the researcher relied on a hypothesis that would come to be
substantiated after carrying out the study and coming up with results. These assumptions helped
in achieving the objectives or the goals of the researcher. Some of the assumptions in the study
were that in- game advertising impacted on the emotions of the players. Assuming that the
results would be in either way was assumed by coming up with a given number of respondents
that were representation of the entire population. This average number and age was averaged to
find a rough estimate. When it comes to standard deviations, its assumption of measuring the
variability of the data compared to the mean was also met through prior calculation of the
Identification of the levels of measurement of variables in the study
Different variables that formed part of the study were measured with these two measures
of central tendency. For instance to check whether there was manipulation, tables of means and
ANOVAs were conducted with the players’ experiences as the dependent variable while the
difficulty of the game was taken as independent variable. There were three levels of difficulty
measured and this included easy, medium and hard. The analysis, indicated that variations in
terms of pleasure, arousal dominance, competence, challenges and tension were consistent or in
line with the researcher expectations. The levels that scored higher means were when the game
was made easy. Compared to the medium and hard levels, it was illustrated that the easy level
recorded higher levels of pleasure followed by dominance.
Description of the appropriateness of the levels of measurement of the study variables
In this study, three levels were used in measuring the effectiveness of every variable
used to ensure that the study objective is attained. The levels used in the study included easy,

medium and hard. The games was made easy, medium or it was made harder and assessed on
the level of players reactions in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, competence among other
attributes. The three levels are appropriate in ensuring that the objective of the research is
obtained by measuring these levels, the researcher wanted to understand the effectiveness of
the variables in different circumstances to facilitate understanding or making of the judgment or
in determination their effectiveness. For instance, easy which was used in terms of the games
helped the players or increased their pleasure, while when the game was made hard it reduced
their level of pleasure in the game advertisings therefore, these difference helps in reaching a
tangible an objective conclusion.
Discussion of how the data was displayed (i.e. graphs, tables)
One of the ways information or data is presented in through graphs, data, and figure. This
method of presenting data enhances understanding of the information and it also makes the
presentation better in this article, the researcher used diagrams and tables to display various
means and standards deviation figures on various levels about different variables that met the
study. The tables were clear and they helped in enhancing understanding of the information.
They also made the presentation simple and easily to understand. A figure or a diagram on how
some of the PC games looked like also helped to enhance understanding of the concept (Van
Reekum et al 2004). This therefore, helped to make the article professionals and easily to
Examining the appropriateness of the data displays
In research, information display is essential as it indicates the level of organization and
input by the researcher in its compilation. One of the strengths in this study is that information is

well organized and is incorporated with diagrams and tables that help to make the article
understandable. The sections of the study are well written and covered and this enhances the
level of understanding the article. Furthermore, the author has indicated the depth of study.
Various literary works from different researchers were included in the study making it objective
and credible. One of the weaknesses of the study is that it failed to provide formulas use in
calculating the means and standard deviations. Therefore, it becomes a little bit complex for an
audience to understand this figures and how they were arrived at. This will affect people that are
not familiar with such measures of central tendency.
Therefore, in conclusion, I can state that the study achieved its objectives. It used mean
and standard deviations as measure of central tendency together with statistical research method
which made the researcher to reach conclusive findings on effectiveness in the in-game
advertising on the players. They are well applied and this has made the conclusion and the
findings credible, with less error margins.


Ghahramani, S. (2000). Fundamentals of Probability (2nd Edition). Prentice Hall: New Jersey. p.
Herrewijn, L., Poels, K. (2013). Putting brands into play: How game difficulty and player
experiences influence the effectiveness of in-game advertising, International Journal of
Advertising, 32(1): 17-44.

Internet, (2001). What is descriptive research? The Association for Educational Communications
and Technology, HANDBOOK96/41/41-01.html
Patricia, M., & Nandhini, R. (2013). A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual
Frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. Note – Shields
& Rangarajan devote a chapter to descriptive research (4). pp. 109-158
Van Reekum, C et al. (2004). Physiological responses to appraisal dimensions in a computer
game, Cognition and Emotion, 18(5), 663–88.
Walker, H. (1931). Studies in the History of the Statistical Method. Baltimore, MD: Williams &
Wilkins Co. pp. 24–25.

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