Anecdotal Observation

Respond to the following essays below. Please number your responses within your report and pay careful attention to the word count requirements for each essay.

1. Explain Figure 3.2, found in Public Health: An action guide to improving health, while describing the relationship between incidence and prevalence. (100 words) the PDF IS FOR THIS QUESTION

[2] In evaluative epidemiology, anecdotal observation must be considered carefully, because other phenomena might have occurred. What three phenomena might occur? Provide an example for each. How will you review anecdotal observations in the future? (200 words)

[3] Compare and contrast health care needs with health needs, as it relates to patient diagnosis and community diagnosis. (100 words)

[4] Provide a list of the various routine information public health professional might use in community diagnosis. (no word count; aim for a comprehensive list

Explain Figure 3.2

The figure represents the bath model illustrating the relationship between incidence and prevalence of the disease. The model considers the prevalence as related to the bathtub. In this case, the incidence or relapse rate is represented by the water while the prevalence is represented by the water in the bathtub representing the pool of cases. This prevalence pool is affected by the individuals who leave the population (death) illustrated by the drainage at the base of the tub representing the mortality or remission rates. The water in this model represents new individuals coming into the population, for example, the newborns.

Anecdotal Observation

            Anecdotal evidence is an account of events, incidences or occurrences in the environment from a personal perspective. Anecdotal evidence is not considered non-factual in the field of science. Its non-factual basis can be attributed to several phenomena that may occur due to the presence of cognitive biases that may occur while observing, collecting, and presenting the evidence.

Some of the phenomena may include; fallacious observations, for example, those occurring when one assumes that if a certain incidence of disease occurs after an individual or community have engaged in a certain behavior, the cause of that disease is the behavior they engaged . For example, there is proof that eating mangoes lead to diarrhoea. Last month i saw a guy eat a mango and contracted diarrhoea. Another phenomenon that may occur is interpretation that is because of the ease of availability of information that may not be true, for example, the two girls tested positive for HIV, therefore, every girl in the village is HIV positive. Finally, phenomena due to hasty generalization, for example, the boy had a headache and was diagnosed with malaria, therefore, everyone with a headache has malaria. Therefore, future interpretation of the anecdotal information will require a deeper analysis that is evidenced based to ascertain if the evidence presented is is valid.

Compare and Contrast

Health care refers to the work done in the provision of primary, secondary, and tertiary care including public health. Health care involves diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness, injury, disease, and mental illness, health care needs are, therefore, are the demands from the patient or the community while receiving health care and may be physical, emotional, behavioral, sensory, mental, or developmental. Therefore, for patient diagnosis health care involves patient-centered primary, secondary, or tertiary health care while the needs here are for the individual alone while for community diagnosis it involves care for the whole community and meeting the community’s health needs.

List of the Various Routine Information Public Health Professional

Community diagnosis is the process of identifying and quantifying of a whole community’s health problems. A community diagnosis also known as a community profile is required for community health care planning This is looked at in terms of rates and ratios of mortality and morbidity and identifying their correlations to determine the population at risk or those needing care. Therefore, the public health professional requires routine information such as the profile of the community that includes the population’s size and composition, income, level of education, religion and socioeconomic group including the population demographics and the community’s health care resources. In addition, the key stakeholders within the health care system, the public health resources, and the population at risk in the community are routine for the professional.

Moreover, information such as the health practices that are crucial in setting the objectives and evaluation the program. Information on the perceived needs of the community is also relevant with the most important here being information regarding the priority areas of the community. Information on the existing channels of communication and information exchange is also relevant including the types of health information exchange with the community. The channels may be informal such as neighbourhood, social networks, schools, or health workers. Information of what media are available for comMunication is also relevant including what information is already being conveyed through such channels is relevant. Information regarding the challenges within the community that may pose a challenge to the diagnosis process is also relevant for the public health professional

Information on the factors influencing health behavior at the family, community, individual, or community level. Such information includes the physical condition of the area, the local norms, beliefs, values, and knowledge of the culture, and the power structure of the community. In addition, information regarding the health problem being diagnosed within the community and anecdotal or any other information referring to the cause of the disease. This information is relevant in understanding the background of the community and individuals in it. It also helps in developing the aims and objectives for the community diagnosis and establishing means for data collection, analysis and presentation. The information allows the public health professional conclude what are the health problems in the community and hence determine the health care required and health care needs that should be provided together with the care.


Walley, J., & Wright, J. (2010). Public Health: An Action Guide to Improving Health.                  Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.