Ancestral hunter-gatherer type meal

Each student will be required to submit a report on The Food Detective Investigation. You will determine the total energy, total fat, the fat profile (sat, MUFA, PUFA), protein, carbohydrate, sugar, sodium, iron, potassium, vitamin C, calcium, folate and fibre content of the following meals. Compare the three breakfasts with each other in a table, then the three lunches in another table. Show the breakdown of the ancestral type hunter-gather meal in a separate table. Tables are provided in the file above (Food Detective Tables) and should be used in your report.

Breakfast:

1. Vitabrits (100g), banana (100g), Greek style yoghurt (8.5% fat) (50g) and 1.5% fat, protein increased milk (200ml).

2. Kellogs Corn flakes (100g), banana (100g), greek style yoghurt (50g) and 1.5% fat, protein increased milk (200ml).

3. McDonalds Bacon & Egg McMuffin, 1.5% fat, protein increased milk (200ml).

Lunch:1. A 6 inch Subway roll (white bread) containing turkey breast and ham with standard vegetables, and 1.5% fat, protein increased milk (200ml).

2. One McDonalds Quarter Pounder Burger with cheese, and 1.5% fat, protein increased milk (200ml).

3. A Four-n-Twenty Meat pie and sauce (20ml), and 1.5% fat, protein increased milk (200ml).

Ancestral hunter-gatherer type meal:

120g lean steak, 45g tomatoes, 35g lettuce, 20g olives, 30g celery, 80g tuna, 20g onion, 100g apple, 25g carrot, 5g garlic, 35g spinach, 25g mushrooms, 25g peanuts, 30g cucumber, 25g eggplant.

During this exercise, students will gain an understanding of where nutrients are found in the food supply, how to use an Australian based Dietary Composition Analysis Database or Tables of Food Composition (if required) and how to present data.

The data is to be presented as a comparison of the nutrient content between the different meals in each category and to consider the relative nutritional health benefits of each meal in the context of the requirements (RDI or limitations to intake) for each of the nutrients under investigation.

You will be expected to hand in a 6-8 page report of this project which shows in 3 clear tables (see attachment above for tables to complete) : the nutritional comparison of the 3 breakfast samples, then the 3 lunch samples and finally in a table of its own the hunter-gatherer type meal.

Then discuss the table data by comparing the nutritional content of the 3 breakfast meals with each other, then the 3 lunches with each other and then all lunches and breakfast meals with the nutritional content of the ancestral diet example.

After describing the nutritional content of each meal, you may like to discuss which groups (or populations) of people each meal type may or may not be suited to (ie. young, physically active etc).

In addition to any beneficial nutritional aspects of a meal, you should also comment on these meal choices also at a general level in regards to modern western society foods on any nutritional aspect that may be linked to lifestyle disease (ie, describe what it is and how it can impact on health), such as CVD and other lifestyle diseases covered in this unit.

As part of your conclusion, you should discuss which breakfast and lunch combination is most suited to people with normal health as well as the limitations of this comparison.

The following outlines what the layout of the report should contain:

You should include a brief Aim, Introduction and Methodology, followed by Results, Discussion and Conclusion and Reference List.

A useful reference is Cordain, L., et al (2005): Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century, from Mini Assignment 1.

Note: Your methods section should outline the source(s) of data used for the food analyses. Referencing of all work should follow APA style.

The main focus should be around your Results, Discussion and Conclusion of the analysis of the dietary data as outlined above.

The Food Detective Investigation

Aim

            This paper aims at comparing three breakfasts, three lunches, and indicating an ancestral type hunter-gather meal’s breakdown and determining the total fiber content, folate, calcium, vitamin  C, potassium, iron, sodium, sugar, carbohydrate, protein, fat profile (PUFA, MUFA, sat), total fat, and total energy in the different meals.

Introduction

            Different types of meals have varying nutrient contents. Depending on the nutrients contents in a meal, an individual can either reap beneficial health benefits or ill health. Presently, lifestyle diseases and conditions including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, high blood pressure, obesity, overweight, and gout have been on a steady increase. These diseases are influenced by the nutrient contents in the meal an individual consumes. Individuals in different population groups such as the physically active, young children and infants, pregnant women, lactating mothers, adolescents, and elderly require unique meals that are fashioned depending on the nutrients they require most in their bodies.

Methodology

            Data for the report will be obtained after making comparisons to the three breakfasts, three lunches, and ancestral type hunter-gather meal. Consequently, the total fiber content, folate, calcium, vitamin  C, potassium, iron, sodium, sugar, carbohydrate, protein, fat profile (PUFA, MUFA, sat), total fat, and total energy in the meals will be calculated. These results will form the basis for the comparisons (Nutrition, 1985).  The Tables of Food Composition and Australian-based Dietary Composition Analysis Database will be extremely useful in this exercise as they will be the source of a majority of the information. Later, there will be a discussion on the nutrient contents in the various meals and well as the health benefits associated with these meals. In addition, there will be a discussion of the groups that are suited to the different meals as well as the lifestyle diseases associated with varying nutritional aspects.

Results

Breakfasts

 fiber content(g)Folate(ug)Calcium(mg)vitamin  C(mg)Potassium(mg)Iron(mg)Sodium(mg)Sugar(g)Carbohydrate(g)Protein(g)Fat profile(g)Total fat(g)Total energy(kcal)
Breakfast 13854241890.90109487<60.04 0.03 0.06<510
Breakfast 24756261770.8110478  <60.04 0.03 0.05  <59
Breakfast 33553201560.599426<40.02 0.03 0.04<36

Lunches

 fiber contentfolatecalciumvitamin  CpotassiumironsodiumsugarcarbohydrateproteinFat profileTotal fatTotal energy
Lunch13656251580.7100457<50.02 0.02 0.04<47
Lunch 23655261560.699448<60.03 0.02 0.05<58
Lunch 35759291590.8103479<70.03 0.02 0.05<79

Ancestral type hunter-gather meal

 fiber contentfolatecalciumvitamin  CpotassiumironsodiumsugarcarbohydrateproteinFat profileTotal fatTotal energy
 8880561990.9145346<40.02 0.01 0.03<47

Discussion

Nutrient content between the different meals

            The first and second breakfast have a richer nutrient content considering that both are composed of milk, yoghurt, cereal, and milk. This implies that there are more nutrients as opposed to the third that is less rich in nutrients considering that it has bacon, egg, and milk, which are all basically proteins. The nutrient content is poor and the meal is not balanced. The ancestral type hunter-gather meal is the most recommendable meal as opposed to the three lunches and breakfasts. The first and second lunches have poor nutrient contents considering that they lack vegetables and they are basically composed of animal products.

Relative nutritional health benefits (RDI)

            The first and second breakfasts are within the World Health Organization RDI recommendations as far as breakfasts are concerned while the third has fewer contents than is recommended. The first and second lunches have less RDI contents than is recommended while the third meets the recommendations. The ancestral type hunter-gather meal has sufficient nutrients and falls within the WHO recommendations.

Lunches and breakfast with ancestral diet

            Of the three lunches and three breakfasts, the ancestral type hunter-gather meal is beneficial in that it improves glycemic control in individuals with diabetes type 2 as well as a number of cardiovascular risk factors (Mengel & Kirkby, 1987).

Groups suited for the meal types

            The first and second breakfasts and third lunch are recommendable for groups that are physically active since they have adequate nutritional contents to cater for the activities. The first and second lunch and third breakfast are appropriate for individuals who are less active. However, there is a need to ensure that the meals are balanced.

Nutritional aspects and lifestyle diseases

            The diet an individual consumes determines the likelihood of developing lifestyle diseases. According to Waterland and Jirtle (2004), consuming animal proteins in high proportions result to lifestyle diseases such as obesity, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases.

Lunch and breakfast combination that is suitable for people with normal health

            If the first or second breakfasts are combined with the third lunch, this would make a health combination. However, if the first and second lunches are combined with the third breakfast, this would make unhealthy food choices.

Conclusion

            There is a need for individuals to make health food choices so as to prevent lifestyle diseases. Traditional diets are more recommendable as they have higher nutrient contents.

References

Mengel, K., & Kirkby, E. A. (1987). Principles of plant nutrition (No. Ed. 4). International Potash Institute.

Nutrition, P. (1985). A consideration of its nature and current implications. New England Journal ofMedicine, 312, 283-289.

Waterland, R. A., & Jirtle, R. L. (2004). Early nutrition, epigenetic changes at transposons and imprinted genes, and enhanced susceptibility to adult chronic diseases. Nutrition, 20(1), 63-68.

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