Adaptive Immunity

Maladaptive responses to disorders are compensatory mechanisms that ultimately have adverse health effects for patients. For instance, a patient’s allergic reaction to peanuts might lead to anaphylactic shock, or a patient struggling with depression might develop a substance abuse problem. To properly diagnose and treat patients, advanced practice nurses must understand both the pathophysiology of disorders and potential maladaptive responses that some disorders cause.

Consider immune disorders such as HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic lupus E. What are resulting maladaptive responses for patients with these disorders?

To prepare:

�Review Chapter 5 and Chapter 7 in the Huether and McCance text. Reflect on the concept of maladaptive responses to disorders.

�Select two of the following immune disorders: HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, or systemic lupus E (SLE).

�Identify the pathophysiology of each disorder you selected. Consider the compensatory mechanisms that the disorders trigger. Then compare the resulting maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders.

�Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor might impact your selected immune disorders.

Post on or before Day 3 a brief description of the pathophysiology of your selected immune disorders. Explain how the maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders differ. Finally, explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of each disorder.

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.\

Chapter 5, “Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing

This chapter examines how the body responds to injury and infection by exploring the first, second, and third lines of defense. It also covers wound healing and alterations of the wound healing process.

Chapter 6, “Adaptive Immunity”

This chapter examines the third line of defense, adaptive immunity. It also covers the roles of antigens and immunogens, the humoral immune response, cell-mediated immunity, and the production of B and T lymphocytes in the immune response.

Chapter 7, “Infection and Defects in Mechanism of Defense”

This chapter covers the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of disorders resulting from infection, deficiencies in immunity, and hypersensitivity. It also examines the pathophysiology of an important immune disorder-HIV/AIDS.

Chapter 8, “Stress and Disease”

This chapter evaluates the impact of stress on various body systems and the immune system. It also examines coping mechanisms and disorders related to stress.

Chapter 9, “Biology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment of Cancer”

This chapter explores the developmental process of cancer and factors that impact the onset of cancer at the cellular level. It also describes various treatment options.

Chapter 10, “Cancer Epidemiology”

This chapter reviews genetic, environmental, behavioral, and diet-related risk factors for cancer. It also examines types of cancers that result from risk factors.

Chapter 11, “Cancer in Children”

This chapter focuses on the presentation and prognosis of childhood cancers. It examines the impact of genetic and environmental factors on these cancers.

 

 

Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders

Pathophysiology

Inflammatory Bowel Disease; the common end pathway involves inflammation of the intestinal tract’s mucosa, causing bleeding, edema, ulceration, and electrolyte and fluid loss. Genetic factors influence the disease’s risk by causing disrupting of the epithelial barrier integrity, lymphocyte differentiation problems, and deficits in autophagy.

Psoriasis: the antigenic stimuli lead to the plasmacytoid dendritic cells’ and other skin’s innate immune cells’ activation. Innate immune cells produce proinflammatory cytokines that stimulate myeloid dendritic cells’ activation. This results to production of cytokines that stimulate activation, attraction, and differentiation of the T cells (Huether & McCance, 2012).

Maladaptive and physiological responses

            Maladaptive and physiological responses to psoriasis occur if a patient utilizes multiple drugs particularly in hepatitis, hypertension, and bipolar disorder patients. Although the disease is not life threatening, using these drugs escalates the chances of the condition shifting to more complex conditions including flare-ups that is uncommon. Smoking also leads to similar responses.

            The inflammatory bowel disease’s maladaptive and physiological responses occur if a patient experiences severe stress. Patients with stress have a huge inflammation bowel development. Smoking also makes the disease very critical (Huether & McCance, 2012).

            Although the maladaptive and physiological responses of these diseases are almost similar, these responses are as a result of different factors. Smoking causes complications in both diseases.

 

Impact on the Pathophysiology

            Genetic factors trigger inflammatory bowel disease evidenced by Cohn’s inflammation bowel disease in particular family lineages. Genetic factors lead to chronic immune stimulation, that leads to mycobacterium infection resulting to the disease. Genes also have a huge role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Several genes participate in the inducement and development of the disease. Psoriasis is genetically heterogeneous. Genetics impact on the two disease’s Pathophysiology since relatives to patients have high chances of succumbing to infections due to the similar shared genetic composition (Huether & McCance, 2012).

Reference

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom        ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

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