# A health care provider

1. What are the two groups whose results are reflected by the t ratios in Tables 2 and 3?
The two groups whose results are compared is a sample of 21 elderly women immediately after 3-
month health promotion programme and 3-months after completion of the health programme where
the considered variables are cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour.
2. Which t ratio in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the
pretest and 3 months outcomes? Is this t ratio statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your

BMI represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between pretest and 3 months
outcomes.
This is shown by; 3.44 – (-0.80) = 3.44+0.80 = 4.24
This t ratio is statistically significant because compared by the one obtained in pretest there is a
significant difference.
3. Which t ratio listed in Table 3 represents the smallest relative difference between the pretest and
3 months? Is this t ratio statistically significant? What does this result mean?

Stress management represents the smallest relative or standardized difference between pretest and
3 months outcomes.
This is shown by; -0.65 – (-0.70) = -0.65+0.70 = 0.05
This t ratio is statistically significant because compared by the one obtained in pretest there is a
significant difference, especially considering one is positive while the other one is negative.
4. What are the assumptions for conducting a t-test for dependent groups in a study? Which of
these assumptions do you think were met by this study?
The assumptions are:
 The samples are evenly distributed
 Same treatment is given to all samples
 All samples participate fully in the experiment
The assumption one and two were met in this study since all the participants were elderly women
living within the same setting and they were subjected to similar conditions.
5. Compare the 3 months and 6 months t ratios for the variable Exercise from Table 3. What is your
conclusion about the long-term effect of the health-promotion intervention on Exercise in this
study?
It shows that it was statically significant, but negatively. This may imply that the long-term effect of the
health-promotion intervention may have negative influence on exercise.
6. What is the smallest, significant t ratio listed in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer
The smallest significant t ratio listed in Table 2 is -0.80 for BMI after 3 months. This shows a negative
influence on BMI after the completion of the health-promotion programme.
7. Why are the larger t ratios more likely to be statistically significant?
This is mainly because they show significant response from the treatment or conditions to which the
study participants are exposed to in course of the study.
8. Did the health-promotion program have a statistically significant effect on Systolic blood pressure
The t ratio is statistically significant for systolic BP because a comparison of pretest and 3 month
outcome show a significant difference.
9. Examine the means and standard deviations for Systolic BP at pretest, 3 months (completion of
the treatment), and 6 months. What do these results indicate? Are these results clinically
They show a slight change which may be clinically important since clinical results are supposed to be
within a specific range because deviations from that range indicate an abnormality.
10. Is this study design strong or weak? Provide a rationale for your answer.
This study design is strong because it ensures that the participants were subjected to the most
appropriate conditions.
BONUS QUESTION
Would you, as a health care provider, implement this intervention at your facility based on the

As a health care provider I would highly recommend this programme because it seems to have significant
positive influence on health of elderly people which would be essential to improve their health.