In a 3-5 page paper in APA format:
� Choose a global health problem (that is not in chapter 15 of your text)***Cannot use
HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, hepatitis B, rheumatic heart disease, parasitic
infection, dengue fever, or malaria.
� Describe what makes it “global” in nature.
� Include what is being done with this issue in terms of prevention.
� Discuss how nursing is contributing to help relieve the health problem you have
chosen. Use a minimum of two scholarly sources to support your work.
3-5 pages with 3 references. Must have cover page and reference page. Needs appropriate
headings for each section
Global Health Problems
Global health focuses on the health of populations in the world, it has been noted that
global health supersedes the efforts of individual nations is eliminating the health problems.
In the twenty first century, socialization and globalization has led to increased mobility and
communication of people all over the world; hence increasing the vulnerability of the entire
population (Birn et al, 2009). Diarrhea disease is part of the global health problems that has a
negative impact to the global economic and political impact. Global health is concerned with
making sure that all the human populations in the world is safe and free from diseases, which
is part of equality in the provision of healthcare among the people irrespective of the social
standing in the community (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010).
There are a number of international organizations that deals with global health, some
of the common organizations identify with: World Health Organization (WHO), World Food
Program (WFP), World Bank and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) among
others. In the recent past, Millennium Development Goals and United Nations Millennium
Declaration are part of the major initiatives in the global health directed at improving the
health conditions of the people in the world (Birn et al, 2009).
Diarrhea Disease (Global Concern)
GLOBAL HEALTH PROBLEMS 2
Diarrhea according to the surveys done in the world has been associated with high
mortality rate among the children; diarrhea is the second among the children killer diseases. It
is estimated that among children of less than five years, diarrhea contributes to more than
seventeen percent of the deaths in the world. One of the most common causes of diarrhea
disease is poor sanitation, which facilitates the spread of viruses and bacteria through food,
water, flies, utensils and dirty hands among others (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010).
Diarrhea causes dehydration, which is treatable through the administration of Oral
Rehydration Therapy (ORT), which reduces chances of child mortality. The challenge facing
the world is pegged to the fact that a significant number of people have no access to medical
facilities (Birn et al, 2009). It is argued that a significant number of child mortality is fuelled
by inadequate reach to the health care or simply lack of knowledge. Taking a critical look at
Rotavirus diarrhea, the disease kills many children in the world. Other types of diarrhea are
giardiasis, norovirus, salmonella infections and campylobacter (Nhs.uk, 2012,).
Nurses manage Rotavirus diarrhea through vaccines, which are cost effective.
Hygiene measures are also encouraged by nurses in managing diarrhea diseases. Nurses
further argue that nutritional measures are critical in managing diarrhea diseases, and that
diarrhea can be minimized through zinc supplementation and encouraging breastfeeding of
Surveys done by the World Health Organization indicated that diarrhea is
characterized with passage of three or more liquid or loose stools in a day, or simply frequent
passage of stool more than the normal (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010). Diarrhea symbolizes
infection in the gastrointestinal. Severe diarrhea is dangerous to the lives of children or to
mature people with impaired immunity or malnourished.
Role of Nurses in Managing Diarrhea
GLOBAL HEALTH PROBLEMS 3
Managing diarrhea is part of the measures taken in dealing with the disease in the
world. Some of the common management models identifies with drinking excessive fluids,
taking Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS), eating and taking medicine.
Nurses encourage patients to drink fluids in plenty, which is a way of avoiding
chances of dehydration (Birn et al, 2009). Nurses argue that patients should take frequent and
small sips of water among other fluids, and at the same time reduce chances of vomiting.
Children are critical when it comes to dehydration, parents and guardians must make sure that
dehydration is avoided. Fizzy drinks and fruit juices should be avoided.
Signs of dehydration in children are: drowsiness, irritability, passage of urine in a
frequent manner, mottled or pale skin, cold feet and hands and worsening health conditions in
the patient (Nhs.uk, 2012,). Children are the most affected by diarrhea especially under one
year, diarrhea common in children under two years especially those with issues of low birth
weight, children who has experienced diarrhea in the last twenty four hours, children who has
had constant vomiting, children unable to hold fluids in their body and children who stop
breastfeeding drastically (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010).
Nurses argue that children with diarrhea should continue being bottle-fed or
breastfeed, mothers are advised to take in more fluids to increase output of the milk.
Children are given Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) after being cleared by the nurses.
Opinions on eating vary with the health care professionals on what should be eaten or
avoided while on diarrhea (Nhs.uk, 2012,). Nurses advise light and small food and gradually
introduce hard foods. Spicy, fatty and heavy foods should be avoided. If the patient feels not
eating, nurses advise constant intake of fluids.
Nurses administer antidiarrhoeal medicines which shorten the effects of the disease to
like twenty four hours, which makes it easy for the patients to resume normal day to day
activities. Loperamide is the common medicine used in treating diarrhea; the medicine is
GLOBAL HEALTH PROBLEMS 4
characterized with slowing down the movement of the muscle in the gut, hence increasing
chances of fluid absorption in the gut. Stools with mucus or blood must be handled with
special care, and patients must be under the watch of the medical practitioners. There are
other medicines used in the management of diarrhea administered depending on the age and
the weight of the patient (Birn et al, 2009).
Birn, A. et al. (2009). Textbook of International Health: Global Health in a Dynamic World.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guandalini, S. & Vaziri, H. (2010). Diarrhea: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances. New
York: Humana Press.
Nhs.uk. (2012, November 28). Treating diarrhoea.