Using probability in public health practice

Using probability in public health practice provide a description and original example of how
probability is used in public health practice. Then, explain why using statistics and
probabilities derived from a population (as is the practice in public health) could cause
problems when applied to individuals in a clinical setting. Finally, differentiate between the
focus of clinical practices, such as those of a therapist, pharmacist, RN, or MD, and the focus
of public health practitioners. How can probability be applied in public health?

Using probability in public health practice

Probabilities are basically understood as the numbers which reflect the chance that a
certain event will take place. Probability is used in public health practice by making
inferences or generalizations regarding unknown population parameters (Nikulin,
Commenges & Huber, 2009). When a sample from the population of interest has been
selected, the characteristic being studied is measured. This characteristic in the sample is then
summarized and then inferences would be made about the population basing upon what was
observed in the sample. For example, researchers can conduct a study to explore the
prevalence of trichomoniasis, also known as T. vaginalis infection which a widespread and
curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). The study can be done for a period of 3 years
amongst a probability sample of young adults, N= 3,000 in Madison, Wisconsin. From the
results obtained from the sample, inferences would be made about the prevalence of
trichomoniasis in the general population in the state of Wisconsin and/or the entire United
States.
Using statistics and probabilities obtained from a population can cause problems
whenever applied to patients in a hospital setting primarily because the public health
professionals obtain their results by studying large numbers of patients and their results

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USING PROBABILITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE
cannot be used in the clinical setting for a specific individual patient. For instance, public
health practitioners make a number of declarations such as: the 6-year survival rate for stage
one cervical cancer is 87% in the United States. Public health professionals calculated this
figure by observing large numbers of women who were diagnosed with stage one cervical
cancer. They then divided the number of survivors at 6 years by the number of those
diagnosed. This will allow public health practitioners to compare to survival rates of the other
sorts of cancers. Nonetheless, it is not useful in predicting a particular patient’s likelihood of
survival for 6 years (Nikulin, Commenges & Huber, 2009).
The focus of public health practitioners is to protect the health of everyone in the
community or entire populations; a community could be a town, a state, a neighborhood or
even the whole country. Public health practitioners improve and protect the health of
communities by means of education, research for injury and disease prevention and
promoting healthy lifestyles. Conversely, clinical professionals focus chiefly on treating
individuals when they have become injured or ill (Nikulin, Commenges & Huber, 2009).

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USING PROBABILITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE

Reference

Nikulin, M. S., Commenges, D., & Huber, C. (2009). Probability, Statistics and Modelling in
Public Health. Cleveland, OH: Springer Publishers.

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