sexually active teens.

They will be a total of 9 new references to include to 9 references of what will be on 112424,
making it a total of 18 references for the annotated bibliography that are expected from you this
week , 3 for each unite so make sure you follow the instructions in choosing the sources.
Understand that this assignment you have just 9 new references to use for the annotated


As scholarly practitioners and as healthcare providers who depend on science-based evidence to
make treatment decisions, such as prescriptions for medications, we must quickly access reliable


Page 2 of 8

Advanced Pharmacology
Annotated Bibliography

(Section #)
Topic (alphabetical order) Unit #3
Reference in APA 6 th edition format)
Annotation paragraph…

AMN Healthcare. (March 27, 2014).The Limits on nurse practitioner practice:
current and future trends.

Unit 1

The article explores the hindrances to nursing in modern and future practice. The information targets
the public health practitioners including Nurses, Physician, and physician assistants.
The information is not peer reviewed, nor scientifically collected. However, the information
remains relevant to the pharmacology and nursing field. The article
explains that there is need to implement the Affordable Care Act to ease the burden experienced
in the health care system. It calls the state remove restrictions and permit nurses practice
in the health care systems with minimal restrictions. The article lacks references but
blogs with related information are listed. The article is written in English using Scientific language.

Al Sha’alan, K., Ferwana, M., Saeed Ur, R., & Yaseen, I. A. (2013). Knowledge and practice of Unit 2
primary care physicians in management of gastro esophageal reflux disease. Middle East
Journal of Family Medicine, 11(2), 40-46.
The article aims at investigating the role of physicians in management of Gastro-
esophageal reflux disease (GERD) According to this article authored by Khalid, Ferwana. Rahma and
Yaseen; GERD is very rampant in most countries with a prevalence rate ranges of 21-56%. The
paper targets the health practitioners and contributes essential information on the role of physician in
GERD. Management. The paper is peer reviewed by Middle East Journal of Family Medicine. The
information is gathered through qualitative research method and all references used to construct
the paper is listed on the last page. The language used to compile the report is English & scientific

Chowalloor, P.V., Keen, H. I., Inderjeeth, C. A. (August 1, 2013). Gout in the elderly.

Unit 4

The article explains about Gout and its incidences in adults. According to Chowalloor and
colleagues, gout refers to mono sodium urate crystals deposition on the joints and soft tissues.
The article associates the pathology with increased morbidity and mortality. The disease
prevalence rate in the elderly has increased by two folds in the last decade. The article targets
both healthcare professional and the public. It includes etiology and disease pathophysiology,

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clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management. There is no mention on scientific data
collection method. The article is also not peer reviewed but very enlightening on Gout disease.
The language used is English and scientific language. The article ends with a list of references
used to compile the paper.

Clayton, S. (2014). Adherence to asthma medication. Nurse Prescribing, 12(2), 68-74. Unit 5
The article reports on patient’s adherence to asthma medication. According to Clayton, adherence to
Asthma is an intermittent airways disease that id reversible. It requires long term medication.
There is increased non-adherence which ranges between 30 and 70 percent. The article addresses
both the healthcare professionals and the public. It educates the public that non adherence to
medication results to negative impacts to the patients quality of life which translates to high
Healthcare cost burden. This paper is peer reviewed by Nursing Prescribing journal. The
information is gathered scientifically using the systematic review approach. All reference used
to compile the article are referenced. The article uses simple scientific language to compile
the report.

Department of Health (August 29, 2012). Nurse practitioners. Unit 1
Retrieved from .
The article describes the nurse practitioner regulations and requirements as outlined by the Department
of health in the United State. The information targets people in the population who wish
to become professional nurse. For instance, it indicates that a person can only practice nursing
if he/she is registered as nurse under Chapter 54. Other information includes educational
requirements, certification processes, Standard code of conduct for nursing practitioner and the scope
of practice. The information is not peer reviewed and is generated from the department of health.
The article lacks list of references. The article is written in English using Scientific language.

Department of Health Care Finance. (nd).
The article describes on District of Columbia (DC) Medicaid. This is a federal state insurance
Program which provides healthcare coverage to low income households and underprivileged
People. The article targets both the healthcare professionals and the public. It describes the criterion
to qualify for DC Medicaid. The article describes the differences between the MAGI Medicaid and
non –MAGI Medicaid. The article is not peer reviewed nor is the information gathered using
Scientific method; but, gathered from DC health Care legislation. The article is written in English
and simple scientific language that lay man can understand. The article lacks references but has
links listed on websites which contains further information on DC Medicaid.

Greener, M. (2014). Managing asthma in school age children: An overview. British Journal of
School Nursing, 9(10), 484-487.

Unit 5

The article describes the interventions to manage asthma in school aged children in UK. It is an
overview report. The article targets the public (particularly school children parents , care givers and

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teachers. It also has some good information for the healthcare physician too. According to Greener,
about one in every eleven children is asthmatic. There are asthmatic emergency every 21 minutes.
Poor medication adherence to medication on children contributes to lower grades due to increased
absenteeism The article concludes that optimizing treatment could lower asthmatic attack on children
by 90% and 75% hospital readmissions. The article explains the symptoms , diagnosis, management
and treatment strategies including the long acting beta agonists. The article explains on the benefit
of adhering to inhaler technique and the role of school teachers and nurses. The article describes the
UK school asthma policies and the most effective strategies to manage asthma in school children.
The article uses qualitative research methodology and is peer reviewed. It is published in the British
Journal of school nursing. Reference list is listed on the last page of the article including further

Harmes, K. M., Blackwood, R. A., Burrows, H. L., Cooke, J. M., Harrison, R. V., & Passamani, Unit 3
P. (2013). Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 88(7), 435-440.
The article reports on AOE, its diagnosis and treatment. According to the article, AOE is a
Complication which arises when the middle ear fluid becomes infected with microorganisms
Such as Streptococcus pneumniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus species. Management
of AOE is through pharmacological therapy including use of amoxicillin for patients who are not
Penicillin sensitive for both pediatrics and adults. The paper condemns use of nasal steroids and
Decongestants. The paper target public health practitioner and citizen. It provides immeasurable
Information on etiology, diagnoses and treatment. The paper uses qualitative research method. The
work is peer reviewed and is published American Academy of family physician. All references are
Included in the last page. The language used is English.

Healthy Children.Org (December 2, 2014). Effective birth control for sexually active teens.
Retrieved from

Unit 6

This article highlights information on over the counter prescription for sexually active teenagers.
According to this paper, most parents are not comfortable on having sex education with their teens.
The article targets the public especially the teenagers and teenage parents. The article information
is an educative one and there is no scientifically collected data. Examples of the methods described
includes contraceptive implant, intrauterine device (IUD), Progestin injection (Depo Provera),
NuvaRing, birth control pills and contraceptive patch. Each contraceptive method pros and cons
are highlighted. The paper uses simple scientific language, simple enough for a teen to comprehend.
There is no reference list; but list on related topic links is made at the end of the article.

Health Affairs. (May 15, 2013). Nurse practitioners and primary Care (updated).
brief_id=92 . Unit 1
The article describes the role of nurse practitioners in primary care. The information in the article
targets both the public and health practitioners. It aims at providing enlightening the target group
on policies which regulate the nursing practice. According to the article, Federal laws, state and local
policies are increasingly limiting the scope of practice for nursing practitioners in care services.

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The information is peer reviewed, and is gathered through mixed Scientific research method. It is
generated from the Health policy briefs of United States. List of references is included.
The article is written in English using Scientific language.

John Hopkins Arthritis Center (October 10, 2012). Treatment of gout.

Unit 4

The article explains on the treatment of Gout disease. The article targets the healthcare professionals
and the public. According to the article, treatment aims at suppressing inflammation and pain control.
The article explains that treatment is effectively done by use of NSAIDs, Colchine and corticosteroids.
More therapeutic measures are elaborated using scientific language. The article is not peer reviewed
and is authored by the Manno Rebecca, an assistant professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins
University. There is no reference list and other associated links are lacking. There is no mention
of scientific methodology of data collection. However, the therapeutic interventions are described
are very enlightening.

Kierkus, J., Oracz, G., Korczowski, B., Szymanska, E, Wiernicka, A., Woynarowski. M. (2014
Comparative safety and efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in pediatric GERD. Drug safety

Unit 2

The article explores on the the safety on using proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in managing GERD in
Pediatric. The study also evaluates the efficacy of PPI on children. According to the article, PPI are
Very effective in management of GERD in infants; and information on the long term safety in infants
Is limited. The article targets pediatricians, and in adding knowledge on GERD management in
Infants. The paper is peer reviewed and published by Springer international publishing Switzerland.
The article is written using scientific language and contains data generated using mixed method of
Scientist research. The list of references used to compile this study is written in the article’s last

Mayo Clinic (November 25, 2014). Gout. Treatment and drugs.

Unit 4

The article is authored by Mayo Clinic. It explains on Gout definition, symptoms, causes, risk factors
complications and treatment and drugs. The medications indicated as the most effective includes
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Motrin. Dosages are as prescribed by the
physician. Colchine and Corticosteroids are also effective to manage the disease. The preventive
medicines include the uric acid production blockers such as Lopurin and Febuxostat. Other therapy
includes medication which eradicates uric acid. Lifestyle modification and dietary changes are
encouraged. The article is not peer reviewed and the data is not scientifically collected. There are no
references. However, the information is very educational. The article targets the general public.

Mittal, A., & Kumar, S. (2014). Role of pH of External Auditory Canal in Acute Otitis Externa.
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery, 66(1), 86-91. doi:10.1007/s12070-013-

Unit 3

The article highlights the role of PH during treatment of External Auditory Canal in Ear infection.

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The prospective study evaluates on the pH of the normal auditory canal in healthy individuals and
Compared the results with people diagnosed with acute otitis externa (AOE). The study also
explored The effect of temperature, humidity in relation to AOE incidences. The study results
indicate that Normal EAC pH is acidic and more alkaline in AOE. The study targeted ENT health
practitioner. The study uses English healthcare scientific language. The research technique used is
quantitative and is peer reviewed; the information is published in Indian J otolaryngology Head
Neck Surg.

National Conference of State Legislatures. (July 11, 2014). Teen pregnancy prevention.

Unit 6

The article is authored by the National Conference of State Legislatures. The audience targeted
teenagers and teenage parents. It outlines the birth rates among the different teenage girls per region.
The article explains effects of teenage pregnancies including increased school dropouts and increase
in intergenerational conflicts. Teenage prevention programs are outlined. The information is not
collected using any scientific method and it is not peer reviewed either. The language used is simple
English language. The additional resources are listed and links provided.

NPR. (October 1, 2014). Long-term birth control works best for teens, pediatricians say.

Unit 6

The article targets the teenage and teenagers parents. It explains that the long term birth control
Approach is the most effective technique to mitigate teenage pregnancies. These includes the IUD’s
And implants. The article highlights that teenager’s lack information about these long term strategies.
The article is not peer reviewed, but carries contents from peer reviewed articles such as the New
England Medicine. The article also includes an interview with pediatricians on the most effective
Technique of teenage contraception. The scientific language is used and mixed research method is
Applied. There are no references.

Redwood, T., & Neill, S. (2013). Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in children. Practice Nursing,
24(5), 222-229

Unit 5

The article targets the general public and healthcare professionals. The article highlights the disease
etiology, diagnosis and the disease management. The article suggests that the disease diagnosis
requires further study on comprehensive representation, the detailed therapeutic regime and ways to
manage recurrent and persistent respiratory symptoms. The article acknowledges the importance of
drug adherence and the integration of non-pharmacological technique. The article is peer reviewed
and is published in the practice nursing journal. The article uses qualitative research method.
The reference list used to compile the article is listed

Thornton, K., Parrish, F., Sword, C. (2011). Topical vs. systemic treatments for acute otitis
media. Pediatric Nursing 37(5); 263-270 Unit 3
This article compares tropical treatment of AOE with systemic treatments in infants. According to
The research tropical treatment such as use of analgesic ear drops and antibiotics are the most

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Effective treatment because they release pain. The article recommended for increased patient
education based on the evidence based practice. The article targets health care practitioners and the
public. The information is simply put in English. The article uses quantitative research. The work is
Also peer reviewed and has been published in pediatric nursing. The paper has reference list.

University of Maryland Medical Center. (June 25, 2014).

Unit 4

The article targets the general public. It is about Gout and the disease pathophysiology. According to
the article, about 8.3 million Americans suffer from gout, especially on the aging population. The
article describes the pathophysiology, the symptomatology, complications, diagnosis, disease control
management and risk factors. The article is not peer reviewed. The article is not collected through
any scientific method, but it is very informing and beneficial. The medical conditions linked to gout
are listed and the resources links. The references are also listed including various text books and
peer reviewed journals.

Venkataraman, J., & Krishnan, A. (2012).
Long-term medical management of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: how long and when to
consider surgery?

Unit 2

Tropical Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation, 33(1), 21-32.
The article evaluates the management of GERD using pharmacological therapy such as proton
Acid depressants and non-acid depressants drugs. According to the article, there is limited
information on how or when the treatment should end. The paper recommends that future research
should include randomized controlled trials to evaluate the most effective GERD intervention i.e.
use of PPI vs. laparoscopic fundoplication. The article aims at educating the public and public
Health practitioners on other alternatives of managing GERD other than pharmacological therapy.
The article uses qualitative research technique. It is peer reviewed and has been published by
Tropical Gastroenterology journal. All list of references used to compile this piece of information
Is listed on the last page. The language used to compile the report is English scientific.

Werner, A. (2012). Taking a long-term look at childhood asthma treatment. RT: The Journal for
Respiratory Care Practitioners, 25(1), 18-21

Unit 5

The article highlights on the long term way of looking at childhood Asthma. The article is an
Interview on Stanley J. Szefler.- the principal for NHLBI sponsored Childhood Asthma management
Program (CAMP). The article is on the long term effects on treatment. The article explores on the
Factors which improves or limits asthma progression on children; ways to integrate the factors when
Making clinical decisions. The article uses qualitative method of research. It targets the researchers,
Healthcare professionals and general republic. The article lacks references and it is peer reviewed.
The information is very educative and is published by the journal for respiratory care practitioners

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