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Services within Washington DC

� What is the availability and eligibility of these resources and services?
� How do these services assist with developing their competencies and talents and help them
gain control over life circumstances?
� Choose a disability and discuss services offered in your area that helps to improve the life
circumstances of these individuals
� Explain the importance of these services to the family as a whole and how these services aid
with care for these individuals
The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000. (2000). United States
Government, Public Law 106-402106th Congress

Obtaining Services within Washington DC

Developmental disabilities refer to broad ranges of condition that causes cognitive and physical
impairments, often diagnosed during childhood. Disabilities include autism spectrum disorders,
Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, vision impairment, and hearing loss. These disabilities are long-
term/ lifelong disabilities. These disorders affect their daily activities such as mobility, learning
ability, independence, self-care, and communication. However, the disability can be severe, mild,
and moderate and support needs. The Developmental disabilities prevalence rate is high in
America. Research estimates that about 5.4 million Americans suffer from developmental

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington
disability. Approximately, 17% of children below 18 years suffer from development disability.
Intervention includes education for the child and the family to understand the disease, and ways
to manage it effectively. Individualized support can help improve the functioning of the body,
self-determination and strengthen the community (Durham, Brolan, & Mukandi, 2014).
Availability and eligibility of the resources
Support of developmental disabilities in Washington aims at assisting people with developmental
disabilities to empower them so that they can remain independent, integrated, and productive.
The services are funded by the State to ensure that the services provided are comprehensive and
coordinated to enhance the lives of people with disabilities to the maximum potential, and to
protect their legal as well as human rights. In Washington DC, the supportive services occur in
varying form including a) community support, which helps in independent living. This helps
these people with assistance on how to manage their self-care, b) residential support which
involves independent housing support in individuals home, c) support for education and for
employment services, d) support for communication, including sign interpreters and
e)community access which includes day care. These support services are adequate for about
79,000 people, most of whom receive services in the community and not in an institution. The
services available in Washington by age group are as follows (Ward, Amanda, & Freedman,

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington


From birth to 3 years: These children are diagnosed with developmental disabilities and are
eligible for Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program (ITEIP) services, which provides the
family with such kids with Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP) aimed at educating
parents regarding the developmental stages of their children to equip them with the relevant
assistance necessary for particular age. Eligibility criteria include that children must have
measurable delayed developmental growth, which is performed by Family resource
coordinators of IFSP. From age 3 to 21: the services available for this age group aims at
improving the education. The services provided includes an individualized Education Plan (IEP),
which are integrated in their education system as early as during the Preschool. These include
services that will improve their communication skills such as speech therapy, psychological
services, physical therapy, and audiology (Kelley, 2013).
After 21 years: trained individuals are integrated in the community to build their self-esteem and
self-confidence. These include services such as the DDD employment program that offers

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington
support through training, and seeking employment to those who can manage. Alternative
services include special assistance to the elderly. Other services eligible for people with
developmental disabilities includes medical cover and support through Medicaid such as
Medicaid personal Care provided mainly to people leaving with disability where the individuals
live with their families. Other services include assistance is the State’s Individual and Family
Services Program, which offers lifetime support on medical costs, therapy, transportation,
behavior management and recreational opportunities (Durham, Brolan, & Mukandi, 2014).
How they help increase their competencies’
People with developmental disabilities often have trouble during communication. This is
because the disability could affect their hearing, sight, and speech which often-effective
communication. The services help communication by helping patients with auxiliary aid,
Braille materials simplified, and computer assisted real time text (CART) which would increase
their communication skill (Kelley, 2013).
These services help people with developmental disability with various life enhancing skills.
These includes skills that enable them complete household task, attend to their personal hygiene
and financial transactions. These activities range from shaving, making calls, to loading
dishwasher and making calls. The programs assess their age, mental capacity, preferences, and
physical capabilities. Taking into account these factors into account, the instructors are able to
design a training skill that benefits individual ability. Other skills taught by these services
include dressing, meal, positioning in bed, self-administration of medicine and use if assistive
devices. These activities are vital daily activities (Ward, Amanda, & Freedman, 2010).
These services also train caregivers and families with people diagnosed with DD. This enables
the family to identify the most effective communication and strategic approaches that will

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington
improve their relationship. The services also improve the ability of individuals to access quality
care such as dentists, psychiatrists, and ob-gyns. The services enable the individual access
specific care in specialized institutions. They do so by providing interpreter services, and sign
language protocols to enable them communicate through expressions. They also facilitate
medical covers, thus improving patient’s quality of life (Durham, Brolan, & Mukandi, 2014).
Identify a disability within a community
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a type of developmental disorder, which is, defined
following diagnostic criteria such a social communication, interaction, repetitive behavior and
other activities. The disease symptoms are appearing during early developmental stages. The
prevalence of autism has increased by 20% globally. Some of the resources available include
Autism society of Washington,

which is a non-profit organization
that offers support and information on autism related issues. The organization manages forums
where people discuss their experience, learn from one another, and gets support. Early support
for Infants and Toddlers (ESIT) is a State program helps get the families
manage their children who suffer from developmental disability. Center for Autism Spectrum
Disorders (CASD)is a state program that offers assessment and treatment services for children
suffering from developmental disability. The program has a multidisciplinary clinical staff that
assesses children and recommends medication. The program also fund research on Autism
Spectrum Disorders, especially those involved in behavioral, genetic and neuro-cognitive factors
associated with autism. The centre also trains families with children suffering from Autism
Spectrum to help deal with these children even in their homes (Kelley, 2013).

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington
Importance of these services
These services are vital form birth throughout the individual’s lifespan. At school age, services
help the child get involved in the society, developing their autonomy and initiative. Research
identifies this young age, people with developmental disabilities are important because it enables
the child learns how to interact in the community in the absence of their families, which could
help children cease from being introverts to “opening up” as they face a myriad experiences
(Durham, Brolan, & Mukandi, 2014).
The children’s communication and interpersonal competencies are developed through such
services. This is because the services helps the children identify their roles in the community to
manage their transition into adulthood. The services empower the children with the role of sex
and community perspective of specific gender behavior. The main requirements for adolescents
diagnosed with DD includes guidance, monitoring and frequent reminders to enable them to get
around with ease and more independently. This is managed effectively through the services
provides for DD, which could be a challenging task for the family (McLaughlin, Barr,
McIlfatrick, & McConkey, 2014).
The development concern of adults diagnosed with DD includes issue such as intimacy and
social isolation. It is a critical time to establish adulthood functions such as employment and
home. These life skills and competencies are built on the previous accomplishment during the
earlier developmental stages. It also influences the person sense of personal value, understanding
that they are different from other people (Kelley, 2013).
For each of the services in Washington, their goal is to provide support to help the caregivers
manage the crisis in the community. The services provided by these services, include

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington
psychological support, clinical support, and collaboration between the relevant stakeholders.
However, there are several challenges facing these services, including language barrier, biasness
towards the sensitivity of patients need and lack of adequate resources in the facilities and
shortages of healthcare providers resulting to poor quality delivery of services. In fact, most of
the adult suffering from DD tends to seek care from their pediatrician, leaving the question on
how patients would make the transition to adult care effectively.

Running Head: Developmental disability in Washington
Durham, J., Brolan, C., & Mukandi, B. (2014). The Convention on the Rights of Persons With
Disabilities: A Foundation for Ethical Disability and Health Research in Developing
Countries. Am J Public Health, 104(11), 2037-2043. doi:10.2105/ajph.2014.302006
Kelley,T. (2013). Developmental Disabilities in Washington: increasing access and equality.
State Auditor’s office Performance audit.

McLaughlin, D., Barr, O., McIlfatrick, S., & McConkey, R. (2014). Developing a best practice
model for partnership practice between specialist palliative care and intellectual disability
services: A mixed methods study. Palliative Medicine, 28(10), 1213-1221.

Ward, RL., Amanda, D., & Freedman, RI. (2010). Uncovering Health Care Inequalities among
Adults with intellectual and Developmental disabilities. Health & Social Work 35(4); 280-

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