Review of Literature

Review of Literature

Write a paper in which you analyze and appraise each of the (15) articles identified in Topic 1. Pay
particular attention to evidence that supports the problem, issue, or deficit, and your proposed
solution.
Hint: The Topic 2 Readings provide appraisal questions that will assist you to efficiently and
effectively analyze each article.
Refer to “Sample Format for Review of Literature,” “RefWorks,” and “Topic 2: Checklist.”

Review of Literature

American Diabetes Association. (2013). American Diabetes Association. Retrieved
September 16, 2014, from American Diabetes Association Web site:
http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/
This professional website provides basic information on type 2 diabetes to help
provide a clear understanding of the condition.
American Diabetes Association. (2014, June 10). American Diabetes Association. Retrieved
September 16, 2014, from American Diabetes Association Web site:
http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/
This is a professional website that provides statistical information extracted from the
2014 National Diabetes Statistics Report. The site provides information on the overall
numbers, of diabetes and prediabetes, diabetes among the youth, diabetes prevalence
by race/ethnicity, deaths, complications and co-morbidities, and the costs of diabetes.
These are valuable background information for the study.

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
Cruz, M. L., Weigensberg, M. J., Huang, T. T., Ball, G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Goran, M. I. (2004).
The Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Hispanic Youth and the Role of Insulin
Sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89, 108–113.
This article provides insight into metabolic syndrome among the overweight Hispanic
youths, and the role insulin sensitivity (type 2 diabetes) plays in the development of
chronic diseases in this population. The article provides evidence on the prevalence of
various conditions in the sample population and the incidence of metabolic syndrome
features. The results indicate a positive correlation between insulin sensitivity and
HDL cholesterol and a negative correlation with triglycerides and systolic and
diastolic BP. Sensitivity to insulin decreased as metabolic syndrome features
increased. This indicates an increased risk to cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic
youth with a history of Type 2 diabetes that is related to decreased insulin sensitivity.
Hence, it is useful in highlighting the need to improve insulin resistance.
Freeborn, D. S., Roper, S. O., Dyches, T. T., & Mandleco, B. (2013). The Influence of an
Insulin Pump Experience on Nursing Students’ Understanding of the Complexity of
Diabetes Management and Ways to Help Patients: A Qualitative Study. Journal of
Nursing Education and Practice, 3 (3), 52-60.
This article provides findings from a diabetes simulation experience among
undergraduate students to provide an experience of how diabetes patients on using an
insulin pump feel. Three prevalent themes were present that are the handling of issues
on self-management, living with an insulin pump and appreciating individuals that live
with diabetes. The article highlights the inconveniences of living with diabetes (dietary
changes, monitoring blood glucose, and the insulin pump). The article is useful in

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
provides insight into the life of a diabetic and the need to introduce changes in
approaches for diabetes patients’ care.
Kaufman, K. (2010). A New Business Model for Hospitals: Recession and Reform are
Changing Healthcare. Can Your Organization Adapt? Trustee, 63 (5), 14-18.
This article highlights the profound changes that are taking place in the healthcare
industry and introducing a new business model in the industry and especially for
hospital. This recession and legislation for reforms have changed what is considered
the successful operations of hospitals and the need to adopt the changes.

Keogh, K. M., Smith, S. M., White, P., McGilloway, S., Kelly, A., Gibney, J., et al. (2011).
Psychological Family Intervention for Poorly Controlled type 2 diabetes. Am J Manag
Care, 17 (2), 105-113.
This article provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a family-based
psychological intervention in improving the outcomes that are related to diabetes
among patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The intervention is effective for
individuals with the poorest control at baseline and effective in changing the beliefs,
psychological well-being, family support, diet, and exercise hence the effectiveness
and need to employ a component that is family-based in the management of diabetes.
Levin, J. S., Glass, T. A., Kushi, L. H., Schuck, J. R., Steele, L., & Jonas, W. B. (1997).
Quantitative methods in research on complementary and alternative medicine. A
methodological manifesto. NIH Office of Alternative Medicine. Med Care, 35 (11),
1079-1094.

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
This is Quantitative Methods Working Group’s deliberations summary. The group was
convened by the NIH institutes to support the NIH office of Alternative Medicine. The
group was identified methods of study design and analysis of data that was applicable
to research on complementary and alternative medicine. They came up with
“methodological manifesto” containing seven guidelines for alternative medicine
research emphasizing the robustness of the existing methods of research and analytic
procedures. The methodologies and analytic procedures can address questions related
to alternative medicine for therapeutic efficacy in clinical research on efficacy to basic
science hence its applicability in diabetes.
Li, R., Bilik, D., Brown, M. B., Zhang, P., Ettner, S. L., Ackermann, R. T., et al. (2013).
Medical Costs Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Complications and Comorbidities. Am J
Manag Care , 19 (5), 421-430.
The article gives estimations of the medical costs that are directly linked to type 2
diabetes and the complications and comorbidities associated with the condition among
managed care patients in the United States. The estimations indicated an increased cost
in diabetes treatment among patients with complications and comorbidities hence
highlighting the importance of considering the costs when determining the most
appropriate treatment for diabetes patients.
Lin, C.-L., & Jueng, R.-N. (2009). Applying Orem’s Theory to the Care of a Hypertension
Patient Undertaking Self Care. Tzu Chi Nursing Journal, 8 (5), 102-110.
This article presents a case report providing a description of the application of Orem’s
Self-Care Theory and intervention management to the care of a patient with
hypertension. The results highlighted that the patient had a deficit in knowledge, little
control of alcohol consumption, anxiety, and fear. It involved creation of

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
individualized brochures of health education to enhance knowledge of the condition,
creation of a day-to-day report of consuming alcohol and provision of mental support
to enhance the knowledge and ability of the patient in controlling their condition.
Therefore, it is possible to make patients aware of their diabetic condition hence
promote self-management and self-care.

Martin, M. A., Swider, S. M., Olinger, T., Avery, E., Lynas, C. M., Carlson, K., et al. (2011).
Recruitment of Mexican American Adults for an Intensive Diabetes Intervention Trial. Ethn
Dis, 21 (1), 7-12.
This is a study focused on the efforts to recruit Mexican American adults self-
management intervention community health worker trial testing. The outcome
measures were screening and randomization. The results indicated that recruitment
that was done through an insurer produced a single randomized participant and when
the criteria for eligibility was expanded the randomized patients increased by 53%.
Recruiting a large pool of patients through community partnerships and incorporation
of community members in the process is difficult even when there are strong
community ties. Therefore, the barriers to recruitment in the community-based
interventions in care should consider all the barriers before initiation to promote
positive outcomes.
Meloni, A. R., DeYoung, M. B., Han, J., Best, J. H., & Grimm, M. (2013). Treatment of
Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Exenatide once Weekly versus Oral Glucose –
lowering Medications or Insulin Glargine: Achievement of Glycemic and
Cardiovascular Goals. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 12 (48), 2-14.

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
This article presents a retrospective analysis’ findings that calculated the ABI of using
exenatide once per week against medication that lowered glucose levels or insulin
glarine to attain the goals recommended by ADA. In addition, the Number Needed to
Treat in order to attain the goals was also calculated for therapies effectiveness
comparison. ABIs were significant with exenatide over all the glucose lower
medications for at least a single HbA1c glycemic goal. Exenatide was favored over
sitagliptin and insulin glarine to achieve the composite goals. Exenatide assisted more
patients compared to sitagliptin, pioglitazone, or insulin glarine hence need to consider
other medication apart from glucose lowering medication in the management of
diabetes.
Sabo, B. (2011). Reflecting on the Concept of Compassion Fatigue. OJIN: The Online Journal of
Issues in Nursing, 16 (1). Manuscript 1.
This article provides insight into compassion fatigue and its causes. It provides case
studies to highlight its impact on nurses and the need to avoid compassion fatigue to
promote the health and well-being of the caregiver and consequently that of the
patient.
Saks, M. (1995). Professions and the Public Interest : Medical Power, Altruism and
Aternative Medicine. London; New York, United States of America: Routledge.
This article provides insight on the influence of professions on the public life and
provides a method for analysing professional groups in society. The article on the case
study indicates the need to explore the emotional components of diabetes and
developed models of coping with the condition.
Wahbeh, H., Elsas, S. M., & Oken, B. S. (2008). Mind–body interventions. Neurology, 70
(24), 2321-2328.

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
This is an overview of the clinical interventions of the mind and body and their
neurological applications. Different mind and body approaches are defined, and their
application and this highlights the possibility of applying such therapies in the
treatment of diabetes as alternative care approaches.
Wong, C. A., Cummings, G. G., & Ducharme, L. (2013). The Relationship between Nursing
Leadership and Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review Update. J Nurs Manag, 21 (5),
709-724.
The article provides a review of studies examining the relationship that exists between
practices of nurse leadership and the patient outcomes. The results indicate a positive
correlation between positive relational and transformational approach to leadership
and increased patient satisfaction, lower mortality, medication errors, and restraint use
and infections acquired from the hospital. Hence, such leadership approaches should
be applied to promote better treatment outcomes among diabetes patients.

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2013). American Diabetes Association. Retrieved
September 16, 2014, from American Diabetes Association
American Diabetes Association. (2014, June 10). American Diabetes Association. Retrieved
Septemebr 16, 2014, from American Diabetes Association
Cruz, M. L., Weigensberg, M. J., Huang, T. T., Ball, G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Goran, M. I. (2004).
The Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Hispanic Youth and the Role of
Insulin Sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89, 108–113.
Freeborn, D. S., Roper, S. O., Dyches, T. T., & Mandleco, B. (2013). The Influence of an
Insulin Pump Experience on Nursing Students’ Understanding of the Complexity of
Diabetes Management and Ways to Help Patients: A Qualitative Study. Journal of
Nursing Education and Practice, 3 (3), 52-60.
Kaufman, K. (2010). A New Business Model for Hospitals: Recession and Reform are
Changing Healthcare. Can Your Organization Adapt? Trustee, 63 (5), 14-18.
Keogh, K. M., Smith, S. M., White, P., McGilloway, S., Kelly, A., Gibney, J., et al. (2011).
Psychological Family Intervention for Poorly Controlled type 2 diabetes. Am J Manag
Care, 17 (2), 105-113.
Levin, J. S., Glass, T. A., Kushi, L. H., Schuck, J. R., Steele, L., & Jonas, W. B. (1997).
Quantitative methods in research on complementary and alternative medicine. A
methodological manifesto. NIH Office of Alternative Medicine. Med Care, 35 (11),
1079-1094.
Li, R., Bilik, D., Brown, M. B., Zhang, P., Ettner, S. L., Ackermann, R. T., et al. (2013).
Medical Costs Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Complications –
Associated-With-Type-2-Diabetes-Complications-and-Comorbidities Comorbidities. Am J
Manag Care, 19 (5), 421-430.

RUNNING HEAD: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
Lin, C.-L., & Jueng, R.-N. (2009). Applying Orem’s Theory to the Care of a Hypertension
Patient Undertaking Self Care. Tzu Chi Nursing Journal, 8 (5), 102-110.
Martin, M. A., Swider, S. M., Olinger, T., Avery, E., Lynas, C. M., Carlson, K., et al. (2011).
Recruitment of Mexican American Adults for an Intensive Diabetes Intervention Trial. Ethn
Dis, 21 (1), 7-12.
Meloni, A. R., DeYoung, M. B., Han, J., Best, J. H., & Grimm, M. (2013). Treatment of
Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Exenatide once Weekly versus Oral Glucose –
lowering Medications or Insulin Glargine: Achievement of Glycemic and
Cardiovascular Goals. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 12 (48), 2-14.
Sabo, B. (2011). Reflecting on the Concept of Compassion Fatigue. OJIN: The Online
Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16 (1).
Saks, M. (1995). Professions and the Public Interest : Medical Power, Altruism and
Aternative Medicine. London; New York, United States of America: Routledge.
Wahbeh, H., Elsas, S. M., & Oken, B. S. (2008). Mind–body interventions. Neurology, 70
(24), 2321-2328.
Wong, C. A., Cummings, G. G., & Ducharme, L. (2013). The Relationship between Nursing
Leadership and Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review Update. J Nurs Manag, 21 (5),
709-724.

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