Research articles- Nursing shortage

Details: NOTE use current literature of less than 5 years.
Conduct a literature search to locate research articles focused on a practice problem of
interest.
Identify (3) research articles on the practice problem you have chosen. Create a reference
list in which the three articles are listed. Beneath each reference include the article’s
abstract. The completed assignment should have a title page and a reference list with
abstracts.
Suggestions for locating qualitative and quantitative research articles from credible
sources:

  1. Use a library database such as CINAHL Plus with full text for your search.
  2. Using the advanced search page check the box beside “Research Article” in the “Limit
    your results” section.
  3. When setting up the search you can type your topic in the top box, then add quantitative
    or qualitative as a search term in one of the lower boxes. Research articles often are
    described as qualitative or quantitative.
    To narrow/broaden your search, remove the words qualitative and quantitative and
    include words that narrow or broaden your main topic. For example: Diabetes and
    pediatric and dialysis. To determine what research design was used, review the abstract
    and the methods section of the article. The author will provide a description of data
    collection using qualitative or quantitative methods.
    This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the
    assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment
    to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion
    of the assignment.

Research articles

Research articles- Nursing shortage

Globally, a majority of the countries are facing critical nursing shortages. While health
care needs are increasing, the numbers of nurses are diminishing. There are a number of factors
that are responsible for this shortage. The babyboomers generation is aging and constitutes it
constitutes the largest portion of the nursing workforce. There will come a time when all this
workforce will retire and the gap will need to be bridged. There has also been a reduction in the
number of students being admitted into nursing schools as a result of inadequate resources to
accommodate large numbers of students. Moreover, the population has been growing steeply,
which has resulted to a growing health care services’ need. If nurses do more workloads than

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they can handle, they end up delivering low quality care. Nurses working for long hours under
unfavorable conditions face job dissatisfaction, injury, and fatigue, and they are more likely to
commit medical errors and mistakes. In addition, deaths, mediation errors, and patient injury
occur. There is a need to lay down strategic measures that will curb the nursing shortage. This
paper is an annotated bibliography on nursing shortage.
MacKusick, C. I., & Minick, P. (2010).Why Are Nurses Leaving? Findings From an Initial
Qualitative Study on Nursing Attrition. MEDSURG Nursing, 19(6), 335- 340.
Nursing shortage is acknowledged as a problem. However, research with nurses is no
longer scarce in the clinical practice. The purpose of the study was to comprehend the factors
that influenced the registered nurses’ (RNs) decision to quit the clinical practice. The study used
the phenomenological research design with the intention of revealing the complicated
phenomena that influenced the RNs’ decisions to quit the clinical nursing practice. This was
achieved by conducting interviews with the RNs and these were no longer in the clinical
practice. The article was keen to note that the nursing workforce projections in the US indicated
that the RN shortage would go beyond 500,000 registered nurses by the year 2025 (MacKusick
& Minick, 2010). In the year 2008, there was a national vacancy rate that was more than 8% in
the US as far as the registered nurses were concerned. According to evidence, the experiences of
the newly licensed RN went a long way in directly impacting on individual perceptions regarding
the profession. Approximately 30-50% of all the new registered nurses end up changing
positions or leaving the profession completely within the first three years of their clinical
practice. There exists adequate data regarding the bedside RNs (MacKusick & Minick, 2010).
However, there are only a few studies that explore the RN’s perceptions that make them leave

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the profession. Comprehending the factors linked to RNs’ practice decisions is very essential in
creating successful nursing-retention strategies.
Ravari, A., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Ebadi, A., Mirzaei, T., & Oshvandi, K. (). Work values
and job satisfaction: a qualitative study of Iranian nurses. Nursing Ethica, 20(4), 448- 458.
The aim of the study was describing the impact of work-related values in the nursing
profession on job satisfaction. The study was conducted using a sample of the Iranian nurses.
The study also used the in-depth interviews. Thirty nurses working in university-affiliated as
well as public universities in Iran, Tehran were used as the participants (Ravari et al., 2012). The
interviews’ thematic analysis results were reported in four themes representing the articulations
of the participants in linking the work-related values to profession satisfaction. The themes
consisted of values that ‘encourages inner harmony,’ ‘encouraged tolerance,’ ‘reflected
traditional commitment,’ ‘enhanced unity,’ and ‘centered around spiritual values and altruism.’
Participants who were most satisfied regarded nursing as a divine profession and a tool through
which satisfaction and spiritual pleasure could be gained. The study’s findings highlight the
potent obligation of work-related values in the profession in reducing dissatisfaction with the job.
As far as the nursing profession is concerned, this has vital implications in decreasing turnover,
leading to nursing shortage, and job instability (Ravari et al., 2012).
Pellico, L. H., Dukic, M., Kovner, C. T., Brewer, C. S. (2010). Moving on, up, or out:
changing work needs of new RNs at different stages of their beginning nursing practice.

OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 15 No. 1.
The article described the work experience of the national cohort that constituted of 229
RNs. These registered nurses took part in a work environment survey during two varying time
periods. The RNs experiences were surveyed within 2 and a half years of the initial RN licensure

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and these results were elaborated in detail. Later, these results were compared to their
experiences 1 year earlier. The Krippendorff’s technique was used for context analysis and 6
inter-related themes were gathered during the two and half years period (Pellico et al., 2010).
The findings showed that the RNs working environment had an impact on both nurses’
dissatisfaction and satisfaction (Pellico et al., 2010). Factors linked to dissatisfaction revolved
around absence of nurse manager leadership, high ratios of patients to nurses, persistent verbal
abuses, and the physical nursing bedside demands that led to injuries. The nurses made
suggestions themselves to guide strategies for improving the work environment as well as
retaining nurses.
Flinkman, M., Isopahkala-Bouret, U., & Salanterä, S. (2013). Young Registered Nurses’
Intention to Leave the Profession and Professional Turnover in Early Career: A

Qualitative Case Study. ISRN Nursing, 2013, 1- 12.

During a time when there is a rapid universal nursing shortage, there are alarming
numbers of young RNs who have expressed the desire to quit the profession. The qualitative case
study investigated in depth the reasons as to why young nurses were quitting the profession and
reeducating themselves for novel careers. The study was founded on longitudinal interviews with
3 young Finland RNs as the participants. The nurses were 1 st interviewed between 2006
December and 2007 May during which their ages were 29- 32 years (Flinkman, Isopahkala-
Bouret & Salanterä, 2013). During this period, they had already expressed the willingness to quit
the profession. Between 2011 January and March, the second interviews were conducted and this
was 4 years later. They had all made transitions into novel careers. Two stages were applied
during the data analysis. During the initial stage, there was formation of detailed career story
narratives based on the interviews. During the second stage, these stories’ emerging themes were

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compared, contrasted, and later interpreted based on the general career histories’ context. The
major themes that were identified from the career histories include demanding work content,
nursing as the 2 nd career choice, poor practice environment, and incapability of identifying with
the nurses’ stereotypical images (Flinkman, Isopahkala-Bouret & Salanterä, 2013). The
interpretative qualitative study’s results indicate a shift towards strategies of comprehending
professional turnover as the long-lasting and complex process.
Bleich, M. R., Hewlett, P. O., Santos, S. R., Rice, R. B., Coc, K. S., & Richmeier, S. (2013).
Analysis of the nursing workforce crisis: A call to action. AJN, 103(4), 66- 74.
The integrative reports review on workforce shortage in healthcare involved examining
fifteen reports that primarily focused on nursing. Various stakeholders were responsible for
conducting the reports. The reports were studies objectively while identifying solutions and
problems as the authors had described them and themes were then used to categorize them.
Problems were identified at both the institutional and national levels and similar solution themes
and problems were indentified from the reports (Bleich et al., 2013). In addition, there were gaps
between these in that some problems did not have solutions while some solutions never
addressed the suggested problems at all. There were gaps among the listed solutions and
problems in theme categories such as healthcare economics, demand, data support and research,
workforce planning, and technology. The analysis’ results were then presented and
recommendations were made to institutions, national and federal government organizations, and
nurses. The recommendations did not provide comprehensive strategies through which the
nursing shortage could be averted. However, they provide a basis for creating one (Bleich et al.,
2013).

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From the foregoing discussion, it is evident that nursing shortage is a pressing issue
globally. There are many factors that contribute to nursing shortage including dissatisfaction
with the job, huge workloads, and frequent verbal abuses. With the Obamacare having been
passed, it is expected that there will be an increase in healthcare needs. However, the
Babyboomers generation that constitutes the largest portion of the working force is gradually
aging and will soon leave the profession. Therefore, there is a need for solid strategies that can
curb the present and future shortage.

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References

Bleich, M. R., Hewlett, P. O., Santos, S. R., Rice, R. B., Coc, K. S., & Richmeier, S. (2013).
Analysis of the nursing workforce crisis: A call to action. AJN, 103(4), 66- 74.
Flinkman, M., Isopahkala-Bouret, U., & Salanterä, S. (2013). Young Registered Nurses’
Intention to Leave the Profession and Professional Turnover in Early Career: A
Qualitative Case Study. ISRN Nursing, 2013, 1- 12.
MacKusick, C. I., & Minick, P. (2010).Why Are Nurses Leaving? Findings From an Initial
Qualitative Study on Nursing Attrition. MEDSURG Nursing, 19(6), 335- 340.
Pellico, L. H., Dukic, M., Kovner, C. T., Brewer, C. S. (2010). Moving on, up, or out: changing
work needs of new RNs at different stages of their beginning nursing practice. OJIN: The
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(1).
Ravari, A., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Ebadi, A., Mirzaei, T., & Oshvandi, K. (2012). Work values and
job satisfaction: a qualitative study of Iranian nurses. Nursing Ethica, 20(4), 448- 458.

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