Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research
Briefly address the data analysis process for Cooperative Agreement for AIDS
Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research Program, 1992-1998:
Identify and justify the univariate, bivariate and/or multivariate statistical techniques that
were used to describe and analyze your quantitative data for Cooperative Agreement for
AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research Program, 1992-1998:
Show the connection between your research questions, literature review, and the analysis
that you conducted wrap up the paper with brief conclusion/recommendations for
Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research
The Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention
Research Program, 1992-1998 entailed a research in which there were 31,088 respondent
records. They were collected from 21 CA program facilities in the United States and one facility
each in Puerto Rico and Brazil. The program was designed to monitor risk factors, risk
behaviors, and rates of HIV seroprevalence and seroincidence among out-of-treatment, multi-
ethnic/racial injection drug users and crack cocaine users. The participants received standard
intervention which entailed street-based outreach and HIV prevention counseling. Those
assigned to enhanced interventions received more counseling sessions, educational videos, social
gatherings, and support group activities.
Respondent data were augmented with eligibility information, biological markers of drug
use, HIV test results, and intervention assignment. Staff or principal investigators at the 23 site
locations completed the process questionnaires. Process data describe the program structure and
process, other intervention projects in the community, needle exchange programs and pharmacy
RESEARCH ANALYSIS 2
syringe sales, and local HIV infection rates. Drugs reported on include alcohol, marijuana,
cocaine, heroin, non-prescription methadone, other opiates, and amphetamines.
The variables and measures that were used for the study are both dependent and
independent. The questionnaires are in such a way that for one to answer the next questions it
depends on what answer the respondent provided in the previous question. For example, in
question q11 it is asking questions about the drugs that the respondent has ever used. The first
question asks whether the respondent has ever used drugs, if the respondent says yes then he or
she will have to answer the other related questions related to the question, otherwise the
respondent is referred to a different question. The gender is also another variable that is used in
the research. In gender there are only two variables, a respondent is either male or female. The
questions keep varying depending on the gender of the respondent. They are not the same
questions all through the interview. Age is also another variable in the interview. One of the very
first questions that the respondent has to answer is their age. The questions just like in the gender
variable they keep changing depending on the age of the respondent. The marital status is
variable as it depends on the status of the individual. The respondent is single, married, or
widowed. The questions asked to the different groups keeps on varying depending on the
identified attribute of the individual.
The participants in the research entailed study of both genders. The age of the
participants varies but they are average grownups. This is evident in the way they answer the
questions and the types of questions presented to them. For instance, questions about sexual
intercourse cannot be posed to children or people of the minor age. In addition, they have
reached the age of majority they are not minors. This is based on questions requiring them to talk
about their employment status and marital status. A researcher cannot pose such questions to
RESEARCH ANALYSIS 3
children. In regard to the education standard of the respondents the majority are educated. They
are able to conduct the interview with much problem because at the end when the researcher has
to indicate the problems with any question that the respondents could not answer the interviewer
does not answer any.
The respondents are not fully aware of their health issues. The majority do not answer the
question about their HIV status, only 888 people are only sure of their health status. They also do
not have the confidence to reply to some questions maybe because the questions required
revealing their personal life to the researcher. This is very evident in the number of respondents
who reply to the question about their sex intercourse. The respondents shy off from revealing
about their sexual intercourse issues. However, as compared to women, men are very outspoken
and they are the majority who answer the questions addressing their private life. The number of
respondents who have used cocaine, hashish and heroin substances is quite high as compared to
those who are HIV positive. Men are the majority in this case recording the highest number of
drug abuse as compared to the women.
The collected research is analyzed and presented in some tables that clearly indicate and
show how the analysis was done. For instance, the response given by the researchers in question
11 has to be presented in the table and all the attributes presented in their respective columns and
rows. This gives a very good impression and easy understandability for whoever has to go
through the collected data. The data is collected and analyzed based on the individuals group in
terms of age and gender. This analysis is very clear as it analyses all the specific parts of the
individuals in the group. The age groups as can be observed share some things in common, for
example the employed and none employed and those who are not employed but looking for a
RESEARCH ANALYSIS 4
job. This analysis in terms of employment addresses all the possible conditions of employment
within the society. This analysis gives a very clear picture of the area of study.
The univariant data collection technique is used in the research. This is very evident in
the age distribution. Those within a specific age bracket have their different type of questions.
For example those between 25 to 35 years are asked questions in regard to their life experience
with the HIV testing. Those that are below 25 are asked how many times that have gone for HIV
testing. The bivariate data is in the gender attributes. The respondents have to reveal their gender
before the respondent asks them the questions. In this case, the questions more so on the sexual
intercourse changes from one individual to the other depending on their sex. The multivariate
attributes are in the marital status. The individual is single, married or widowed. This is a case in
which there are three options hence multivariate. Also revealing the origin of the individual is
also multivariate and individual is either Cuban, Mexican American/Chicano, Mexican,
Dominican Republican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American or they specify any other type
of origin that is not indicated.
The researches I have tackled are very much related connecting the whole research from
their design up to the data analysis and the study of the participants who are the key people in the
research. The questionnaire are presented in a very connecting way staring form the simplest
question to the more complex question. The selection of the population of study was well
conducted and in line with the objectives of the study. The participants are very much well
informed of the question that they are presented and the questions are very easy to understand
therefore saving time for both the respondent and the researcher.
I recommend that the researchers should carry out the research in a time that the all the
people are available. This means that the research should be carried when all people are out for
RESEARCH ANALYSIS 5
holidays. In this way there could be a very good spread of the participants in terms of those who
are highly literate and those who are illiterate. In addition, the research should design questions
for the juniors so that they also become informed of the dangers a drug abuse and the dangers
and ways of contracting HIV AID. In this way, they can provide very crucial information that
will be used by the government in planning and dealing with the problem of HIV AIDS.
In conclusion, it is very important for every individual to know his or her HIV AIDS
status. People should always be informed of their status so that they can behave responsibly no
matter how sure they believe their health status. Substance and drug abuse are very dangerous to
individual health and people should struggle so much to avoid using them. If one cannot manage
the drug abuse then they should seek assistance from rehabilitation centers.
Appe, A. (2008).”Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate methods in corpus-based lexicography –
A study of synonymy”.
Kingsley, M. (2009). “PPA 696 research methods: Measurement.”
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. National Institute on
Drug Abuse. Cooperative agreement for AIDS Community-based outreach/intervention
research program, 1992-1998: [United States]. ICPSR ed. Washington, DC: CSR
Incorporated [producer], 2000. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political
and Social Research [distributor], 2001.
William M.K. (2006). “Research methods: variables.” Web center research for methodologies.
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Zhu, J. (2006). Statistical methods of spatial data analysis statistical methods. Journal of the
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