Quantitative Critique

MN504 Quantitative Critique

Please use the below Quantitative Critique Completion Form to complete your critique of quantitative research. Type in your responses under EACH section. If your opinion is that the research article does not address or infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.

IMPORTANT:

  • Do not leave any section blank!
  • Do not provide a “yes” or “no” answer without an explanation. You must justify all your responses.
  • You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.
  • Save your file as YourName_QuantitativeCritique.doc and upload to the unit Dropbox.

Student Name:

Full and Complete Reference for the Article:

Note: You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.

Problem:

What is the problem the study was conducted to research?

The study was conducted to research the effect of caring nursing on patients’ health outcomes

Why is the problem an important one for nursing to research? 

The problem is important to nursing research because care is an integral part of the nursing practice.

Study Purpose

What is the purpose of the study?  

The purpose of the study was to investigate how technology can be integrated in grounding the teaching of nursing on the premise of a caring framework.

Research Question

What is the main research question is: Can caring nursing be taught using simulation technology to practicing nurses?

Hypothesis/hypotheses

What is the study hypothesis? If it is not stated, what would you say the hypothesis is?

Though not stated but can be inferred to something like this: Nursing care improves patients’ health care outcomes

Study Variables

Identify and describe the major study variables. Identify the study variables by examining the purpose, the objectives, questions, or hypotheses, and the results section of the research article.

Teaching caring nurses and the caring behaviors of practicing nurses are the two major study variables

INDEPENDENT

Define the meaning of the term “independent variable.”  

This is a variable whose variation is not determined or influenced by the variation of another variable (Beck, 1995).

Identify the independent variables in this study and provided a definition of the variable.  

The independent variable in this study is the teaching of caring nurses

How is the independent variable carried out in this study?  

This is carried out by exposing RNS-BSC to a new curriculum that emphasizes on caring nursing

DEPENDENT

Define the meaning of the term “dependent variable.”  

This variable depends on another. It measures the outcome of the study.

Identify the dependent variables in this study and provide a definition of the variable.  

The dependent variable in this study is the caring behaviors of practicing nurses

How is the dependent variable measured in this study?  

A cluster-randomized design measures the dependent variable before and after the teaching. This enables for the measurement and evaluation of the quality of care given by the RNs-BSC who go through the training.

Conceptual Model/Theoretical FRAMEWORK –

Note: This is determined in the literature review … it does not refer to the methodology.

Is the framework explicitly expressed or must the reviewer extract the framework from implicit statements in the literature review? JUSTIFY your response!

The framework used by the author is explicitly expressed. The theoretical framework used explains how teaching-learning process is instrumental in understanding a system that mimics the human system within a nursing environment (Blum et al, 2010).

Is the framework based on scientific, substantive, or tentative theory?  

The framework is based on a tentative theory

Does the framework identify, define, and describe relationships among the concepts of interest? Provide examples and rationale for your response.

The framework identifies and describes the relationship between the teaching care and the expected outcomes.

How is the framework related to the body of knowledge in nursing?

This framework is related to the body of knowledge of nursing because it proposes a new way of ensuring that nurses go back to the founding principles upon which their profession is founded; that is the foundation of care.

Review of the Related Literature

Are the articles relevant with previous studies and theories described?  

The articles used are relevant as they contain studies that are related to the article. Additionally, the articles are recent, that is they range from 2000 to 2009. The theories have also been sufficiently expounded.

Are the references current? Identify the number of sources within past 10 years and the number of sources within past five years.

Some of the references are current while others are a bit old. 17 sources are within the past 10 years  and only three of these are within the past 5 years

Describe the current knowledge about the research problem.  

The current knowledge asserts that caring nursing has far-reaching implications or effects on both the nursed and the nurse

Specify the gap in the literature that justifies the need for the research.  

The gap exists in the area of methods of teaching caring behaviors to practicing nurses

Study METHODOLOGY

NAME the specific quantitative methodology of the study.  

Surveys or questionnaires

Provide a clear description/definition of this methodology (in your own words); use an article or your text to support the definition and provide a citation.

Surveys are tools used to collect a large amount of data from a relatively large population or sample size (Macnee & McCabe, 2007). The massive results collected can then be analyzed to ascertain relationships.

Why was the choice of this methodology appropriate for this study? JUSTIFY your response.

This choice was appropriate because the study needed input from many participants

Sample and Setting

Identify inclusion and exclusion sample criteria.  

All students enrolled in the health assessment course were free to participate in the study while those not enrolled in the course were excluded

Indicate the method used to obtain the sample. Provide a definition of the method and discuss why it was an appropriate choice for this study

Random sampling was used. This method ensures that biasness is kept at bay and the sample obtained is uniform and representative. This method was ideal for this study because all students who had enrolled for the course were part of the participants

State the sample size. Indicate if a power analysis was conducted to determine the sample size.

Sample size N= 19. Power analysis was not used

Identify the SPECIFIC characteristics (demographics) of the sample.  

  1. All are students enrolled in the health assessment program
  2. 31% were males and 69% females
  3. 69% were non-Caucasian, while 31% were Caucasians
  4. Majority of the participants were under 30 years of age

Identify the sample mortality (or attrition) number and percentage.  

There was a 0% attrition rate because all the participants stayed in the study in its full course

Indicate the type of consent obtained and institutional review board approval.  

  1. Informed consent from the students
  2. Approval by the university’s Institutional Review Board Committee on Human Subjects.

Identify the study setting and indicate if it is appropriate for the study purpose. JUSTIFY your response!

The study was conducted in a learning institution where the RNs-BSc receive both instructional lectures and carry out lab work. This setting was ideal for the study because of the convenience of measuring the expected outcomes.

Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables

Define extraneous variables  

These are undesirable variables that have a capacity of influencing the experimental variables that are under study.

What are the extraneous variables in this study? In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? Describe fully. If not addressed, explain how you know this and identify the extraneous variables you would note.

Some of the extraneous variables in the study include lack of control over the participants work environments.

Study Instruments/Tools

Identify the instruments used in the research 

FOR EACH INSTRUMENT:  Instrument #1; Name of Instrument: Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. Cite the source for the background information about the instrument.

The first instrument used is the rating scale. This instrument is used in surveys that involve asking the subjects to choose a response from a list of hierarchical arranged items (Baer, & Blais, 2010).

Identify the type of measurement strategy (e.g., Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview).

The type of strategy used is the Likert Scale

Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by the measurement strategy. Provide a definition of the level of measurement(s) you identified and justify WHY you believe the instruments represent this level of measurement.

The level of measurement used is ratio scale. This scale has the capacity of capturing continuous data and is therefore appropriate for the study.

Report the reliability of the instrument from previous studies and the current study.

This instrument is reliable both in the current and previous studies.

Report the validity of the instrument from previous studies and the current study.

This instrument is valid both for the current and previous studies.

Instrument #2; Name of Instrument: Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. Cite the source for the background information about the instrument.

Instrument #2: Performance Checklist

Identify the type of measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview).

The performance checklist is filled using observation as the type of measurement strategy (Baer, & Blais, 2010).

Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by the measurement strategy. Provide a definition of the level of measurement(s) you identified and justify WHY you believe the instruments represent this level of measurement.

The level of measurement used with this instrument is the nominal scale that simply clusters the participants into categories based on their shared characteristics.

Report the reliability of the instrument from previous studies and the current study.

This instrument is reliable both in the current and previous studies.

Report the validity of the instrument from previous studies and the current study.

This instrument is valid both in the current and previous studies.

Instrument #3; Name of Instrument: Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. Cite the source for the background information about the instrument.

Instrument #3: Observation Charts

Identify the type of measurement strategy (e.g., Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview).

Observation is the measurement strategy used with this instrument.

Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by the measurement strategy. Provide a definition of the level of measurement(s) you identified and justify WHY you believe the instruments represent this level of measurement.

The interval scale which measure the distance between two objects in a scale was used to fill the observation charts. This level of measurement is sufficient for the purpose of the study (Baer, & Blais, 2010).

Report the reliability of the instrument from previous studies and the current study.

This instrument is reliable both in the current and previous studies.

Report the validity of the instrument from previous studies and the current study. Note: If more than 3 instruments, please add more descriptions.

This instrument is valid both in the current and previous studies.

Data Collection Methods

Detail how the data were collected.  

The data was collected from the sample using a number of statistical tools.  The potential participants were informed about the objectives of the study. Measurements were taken before and after the experiment’s duration. The data was collected using an experiment. The researchers controlled the two groups of sample so as to understand the cause-and-effect relationship (Pawar, 2004).

In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study?  

This method of data collection was appropriate because the participants filled up the questionnaires from their work experience.

In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect the rights of the subjects?

The rights of the subjects were protected by first being briefed on the purpose of the study. Secondly, the study was approved by the university’s Institutional Review Board Committee on Human Subjects.

Statistical Analysis Procedures

Identify the statistical procedures used in the study:  Statistical Procedure #1 (Name and definition):

Descriptive Statistics- this is the use of figures to define or describe the sample e.g. age, number of females (Winkler, 2009)

How was it used in the study?

This was used to give the descriptive role of the study participants.

Statistical Procedure #2 (Name and definition):

Care Behavior Inventory (CBI)-  This tool defines the various parameters that can be used to describe care(Watson, 2002)

How was it used in the study?

This was used to define the various constructs or elements of the caring nursing program.

Note: If more than 3 statistical procedures, please add more descriptions.

Complete the table below with the analysis techniques conducted in the study:

Statistical ProcedureStatistical FindingsSignificance (provide a narrative description of the significance as well as the actual statistical values
Paired T- TestsPositive correlation between care and patient outcomeThe significance level for this procedure was set between p= 0.05 and p= 0.10…the actual statistical value was 0.033
Fisher’s Exact TestsPositive correlation between care and patient outcomeThe significance level for this procedure was set between p= 0.05 and p= 0.10…the actual statistical value was 0.046
T-testsPositive correlation between care and patient outcome.The significance level for this procedure was set between p= 0.05 and p= 0.10…the actual statistical value was 0.092

What are the specific results of the study? Provide DEPTH and write IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

Strengths\Limitations

What are two major strengths of the scientific merit of this study? (This does not refer to findings of the study)

  1. The depth of research
  2. Public and private health care support

What are two major limitations of the scientific merit of this study?  

  1. The small number of participants
  2. The short period of follow up

How did the researcher generalize the findings?  

The researchers generalized their findings by comparing the results gathered from the two groups of sample and measuring the significance of the results.

What did the researchers say the relevance of the data was? Describe the researchers’ interpretation of the findings.

The researchers asserted that the data used was valid and reliable. The findings were interpreted to give results for the improved caring nature in the nurses

Where in nursing can the results of the data be applied?  

The results can be applied in nursing research, education, and training.

What suggestions for further study were identified?  

Further study need to be conducted in the area of applying simulation technologies in unearthing the potential in the learning process. Additionally, the study should be repeated in the future with other faculties and in different courses.

Is the description of the study sufficiently clear for replication? Explain and Justify your response

The description of the study is sufficiently clear and can easily be replicated. The same model used in this research can easily be applied by other researcher and results compared

REFLECTION

Reflect upon your newly developed understanding of quantitative research. What has this experience critiquing a quantitative research study meant to you and how will this make a difference in your overall practice of nursing? Please provide depth and be sure you respond to the question. This is a subjective response and must be at least 2 full paragraphs. Please respond in reference to understanding quantitative methodology and not the specific focus of the research study.

What has the experience of reading and critiquing a quantitative study meant to you?

I have gained experience on how to analyze a journal article. This experience is useful for my future practice. The article has highlighted the details that go into the preparation of a quantitative research. I have also learnt that positive patient outcome is dependent on caring nursing among a host of many other factors. The critique has also highlighted the importance of the nurse forging a care-based relationship with the patient.

How will understanding and using quantitative research findings make a difference in your practice of nursing?

This will ensure that my practice applies the best and proven techniques highlighted in the articles critiqued. The findings also point to the various factors that must be considered in ensuring that the desired results are achieved. The comparative results will help me fashion my practice on a care-based framework. Additionally, the findings will help me streamline my practice to benefit my patients.

REFERENCES: Please list (APA) at least SIX  references used to inform your responses to the questions. Be sure you have properly cited the references with your answers.

Beck, M. S. (1995). Data analysis an introduction. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Blum,A. C., Hickman,C.,Parcells, A. D., and Locsin, R., (2001).Teaching Caring Nursing to RN-BSN Students Using Simulation Technology. International Journal of Human Caring. 14(2):41-50

Macnee, C. L., & McCabe, S. (2007). Understanding nursing research: Using research in evidence-based practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pawar, M. S. (2004). Data collecting methods and experiences: A guide for social researchers. Elgin, IL: New Dawn Press.

Watson, J. (2002). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health science. New York: Springer Pub.

Winkler, O. W. (2009). Interpreting economic and social data: A foundation of descriptive statistics. Dordrecht: Springer.

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