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Principles of Health and Social Care Practice

Principles of Health and Social Care Practice

Communities and societies have the right to access to good quality health care. Despite
the people diversities, they at some point require medication or social support services.
Therefore, it becomes prudent for the service providers to put in place appropriate strategies to
reduce risks and hazards. There is also need to maintain privacy of service users and promote
awareness on diseases and many other social issues that affect people since principles of health
and social care practice are built on this, hence the focus of this paper.
LO1 Implementation of principles of support in health and social care practice


In health and social care setting, the major principal is providing quality support to users.
Users should remain confident and assured of receiving quality health care services for their
wellbeing (Healy, 2011). Health care providers must be aware of their roles and the rights of the
patients as well as their personalities (Healy, 2011). There application is also manifest by
upholding to diversity and equality when providing care. Health providers must ensure that they
provide quality care to all patients without discrimination. Even though, patients’ beliefs, culture,
norms, and values do vary, health providers should not discriminate them based on any
demographic factors. Upholding to human dignity and worth as well shows how the principles of
support are applied. Other ways include; empowering patients through such approaches as the
person-centered approach by tailoring health with their needs and desires (Healy, 2011).
Allowing patients to make informed choices, embracing social justice, integrity, and assessing
risks before taking a certain step of action, are other ways of applying the principles (Fish &
Karban, 2014). Service users should as well be allowed to access to different health care needs or
treatments without restraint. Systems must be working properly for these principles to be applied
well. Employees must have better training, must work closely with the service users, should have
effective communication skills to share and get valuable information from the service users
before providing care (Healy, 2011).
All servicer users need protection from any likely harm in health and social care setting.
Some of the harms service users risk experiencing includes financial, physical, emotional, and
psychological harm. For instance, physical harm can occur in case a mentally challenged person


attacks a fellow patient or even an employer. There are various ways of protecting patients from
such kinds of harms. One way to avoid these harms is for the organization to set policies and
procedures to guide in management of the harms (Healy, 2011). For instance, mentally ill
patients should be placed in specific rooms to deter their movement. Another way is to allow
personalized care planning. Such programs will help to reduce emotional and psychological
harms. Risk assessment and management is also a suitable way to manage these harms. Through
risk assessment, the organization can identify the in advance potential risks and come up with
appropriate remedies. Other ways include making referrals to other facilities with equipment and
facilities, raising an alert, ensuring good record keeping, partnering with other people and
institutions to manage the harm. For instance, psychologists can partner with health and social
care institutions to provide counseling and therapist services to emotional and depressed service

Among many approaches, it is prudent for care providers to follow the person-centred
approach in providing care to patients. Under this approach, client needs, values, and desires are
considered when providing health and social care (Broady, 2014). One of the benefits of this
approach is that it empowers the clients, hence promote quick recovery, as the client feels valued
and respected (Markwick, 2013). The approach as well improved the psychological, physical,
and emotional health of the patient. Furthermore, the approach increase openness something that
fosters delivery of better health care. When values and desires of the patient are met, they are
able to cooperate. This in turn makes the work of the care provider easier.


During their service delivery, health and social care providers experience various
incidences of ethical dilemma and conflicts. These conflicts sometimes hamper delivery of
quality health care. Even though, these organizations have policies they require to oblige, certain
occasions may require ignoring the same. This therefore, results to an ethical dilemma as abiding
to an alternative decision option leads to conflict. Common ethical dilemma scenarios and
incidences include deciding between the welfare of the client versus that of the public, gaining
informed consent, an individual choice verse the rights of others and limitation of confidentiality
among others. A good scenario to demonstrate ethical dilemma and conflict of interest health and
care provider face is the case of Mrs. M. This 67-year-old has refused to quit smoking despite
suffering from lung cancer. She has as well refused to heed to the advice of the doctors. Even
though she has the right to make choices, the choice is not in tandem with the public good. This
therefore, creates an ethical dilemma situation since; it is the responsibility of care providers to
ensure that the user leads a better live. Furthermore, an ethical dilemma is experienced when
doctors stop giving her stronger medication to worsen her situation but care providers show
empathy to her sufferings, and seek for assistance. This therefore, creates conflicts among the
doctors and care providers. There seems to be no trust between these two. Similarly, it is also
unethical to refuse to seek informed consent from Mrs. M whether she should be given the
painkiller or left to suffer. However, it is also unethical for the care givers to refuse to take action
and leave Mrs. M suffer and eventually dies without assisting her.
LO2 Impact of policy, legislation, regulation, codes of practice and standards on
organisation policy and practice


At the work place, policies, regulation, legislation, and codes of practice and standards
provide guideline on the way to execute daily activities. Implementation of these policies,
legislations, and other requirements remains critical to foster smooth operations and delivery of
health and social care. In the organization I work, policies are implemented after a thorough
research is done. This is to ensure that the policies and regulations add value to all the
stakeholders. Sometimes they are interpreted to ensure that everyone understands them. When
implemented, supervisors coordinate to ensure they are well applied. Some of the policies
include, reporting on duty in time, attending seminars and training, and wearing uniform while
on duty. Codes of practice includes, remaining professional, upholding to integrity, honest,
respect, autonomy, and embracing diversity (Healy, 2011). Laws such as Data Protection Act
and Control Of Substance Hazardous to Health Regulation (COSSH) are taught and providers
expected to adhere to them always.
There is always need for local and national policy requirements to conform to another or
to enhance service delivery. However, this is not always the case. This can be achieved through
creation/development of working documents that will help provide information on the various
health or social issues at the local level (Healy, 2011). Another way is through establishing of
local demographics to ensure that they are factored in when coming up with these policies. It is
also important for leaders at both local and national level and other stakeholders to consult and
make agreement on various issues. There is also need to modify some of the policies to meet
certain requirements of some organisations at both local and national level.


The codes of practice, regulation, policies, and codes of ethics established impacts on the
organizational policy and practice in different ways. The motivation or purpose of these policies
and laws is always to improve the quality of health and social care (Healy, 2011). Improvement
of services is evidenced with reduced health problems, reduces discrimination, less waiting times
and experienced staffs. The policies as well foster standardization that contributes to adherence
to ethics and codes of practice. Other benefits of the policies, legislation, and regulation are that
they allow clear expectations and ensure protection of both the service users and staff. For
instance, users are protected through such laws that require data privacy, confidentiality and
informed consent laws. Employees as well can easily sort redress of issues of their concern.
Despite these benefits, the policies as well may have negative impacts. The cost of
formulating and enforcing as well as implementing the policies is high. Period of transition is
also elongated and this may cause disruption of services, there is also higher chance for the
administration to experience some burden in enforcing the laws. On some occasions, service
closure is likely to be experienced jeopardizing provision of health and social care services.

LO3 Theories that underpin health and social care practice


Different theories exist that apply in both health and social care practice. Some of these
theories include psychodynamics, behaviorism, psychosocial theories, social systems, and
developmental theories such as Freud, psychosexual stage theory, Piaget’s cognitive
developmental stage theory and Eriknson’s psychological stage theory. Health and social care


providers must understand different aspects pertaining to age, the culture, and the stage of
development among others that help in provision of care (Carlson et al., ; Neil, 2010). Dynamic
psychology focuses on human behaviors, their emotions, feelings, and their relationship to early
experience. Social workers and health care providers can use these theories to understand the
psychology of people, hence render appropriate care.


Different social processes have different impact on the users of health and social care
services. Social processes includes gender, education levels of people, the culture, employment
rates, attitudes and values people hold through socialization, resource distribution, sexuality and
opportunities available. For instance, if people are literate, their level of understanding is higher,
hence has the ability to learn easily and take precautionary measures quickly than illiterate
people. These social processes therefore, may lead to isolation, domination, inequality,
exclusion, stigmatization, marginalization, and discrimination. For instance, people with low
level of income are likely to be discriminated when it comes to accessibility of health care
compared to those high levels of income. Isolation as well may happen especially when the
people perceive themselves or their culture to be superior to others’ cultures affecting the quality
of care.


Inter-professional working relationships have been embraced in health and social care
settings. This approach requires professionals to collaborate to render higher standard of care
(Addy, Browne, Blake, & Bailey, 2015). Professional understands their roles as they learn for


one another. For instance, in a health care setting, Nurse, GP, physiotherapist, occupational
therapists, and assistants can collaborate in their work, while in social care, carer, and social
workers can as well collaborate. One benefit of this work arrangement contributes to
achievement of agreed outcomes, improves the quality of relationships, ensures care continuity,
ensures provision of holistic care, and enhances easy identification of professional goals (Day,
2013). Furthermore, this arrangement acts as a safety net when it comes to provision of care. The
other benefit is resource conservation. Resources such as infrastructure can be shared

LO4 Development and implementation of health and social care Organisational policy


As a health care provider, I have a role and responsibility to promote delivery of better
health care to all patients. All patients deserve equal treatment. I have to create a cordial working
relationship through effective communication. Furthermore, is my responsibility to respect all
service users and all stakeholders, uphold to autonomy, respect other people rights, and be honest
when rendering health care. I have the duty to uphold to good practice when rendering services
such as keeping health records well and embracing codes of ethics. In the incidence where a 20-
year-old Black Hispanic woman with pregnancy refused to accept transfusion of blood, I have
the responsibility to engage her and persuade her to accept. I also have the right to inform her on
the consequences of her decisions. She has her right and if she insists, I will have to take the next
step of forwarding the case to the senior health provider to ensure that I am not to blame for her
future complications in case they occur.



I have contributed on several occasions in development and implementation of health and
social care organizational policy and believe that through such contributions, remarkable changes
have manifested. I take time to read existing policies and other content to understand them before
initiating changes. Through reading, I am able to identify areas that require amendments. I also
express ideas frankly on what I feel require adjustments. I also participate in consultations as
experienced in the case of a 20-year woman that refused a blood transfusion. I had to share this
with my seniors. I also adhere to quality assurance systems, get involved in clinical governance,
as well as contribute in the process of making decisions.


Every organisation must put in place mechanisms to achieve good practice requirements
to deliver quality health and social care services. My recommendations to meet good practice are
herein. Organizations should have clear codes of ethics and professionalism and ensure
compliance. Continuous training of employees as well as service users on health and care is
paramount to improve service provision. It is also important for the institutions providing health
and social care services to be accredited before being granted a go ahead to render services. The
organization should also open avenues to share ideas and views from users and service providers.
Listening and providing feedback will go ahead to build positive working condition that will
contribute to delivery of quality services. Decision-making should be open to all the people for
them to have a sense of belonging as experienced in the case, I sort further direction from the
seniors when I reached a stalemate. This will improve the level of satisfaction and performance.
Peer support and supervision is also critical to improve service delivery. People should also be
each other keeper and should share with one another good practice.



It is the responsibility of all stakeholders to contribute to high quality services. Principle
of support has explicitly provided a platform of ensuring that appropriate services are provided.
Service givers need to be competent to render quality services respecting the rights of patients
and others. Similarly, other users must as well respect the service providers. Codes of ethics,
regulations, laws, and policies set require proper implementation. All stakeholders should take
part in their implementation to warrant success. As a health practitioner, I must remain
committed, respect other people rights and adhere to codes of ethics to deal with issues such as
ethical dilemma and conflicts. My motivation is to impact positively on anybody provided they
are of human race.


Addy, C. L., Browne, T., Blake, E. W., & Bailey, J. (2015). Enhancing Interprofessional
Education: Integrating Public Health and Social Work Perspectives. American Journal Of
Public Health, 105S106-S108.

Broady, T. (2014). What is a person-centred approach? Familiarity and understanding of
individualised funding amongst carers in New South Wales. Australian Journal Of Social
Issues (Australian Social Policy Association), 49(3), 285.


Carlson, P et al., ; & Neil, R. (2010). Psychology: The Science of Behaviour. United States of
America: Person Education. pp. 453–454.

Day, J. (2013). Interprofessional Working: An Essential Guide for Health and Social Care
Professionals, Thomson Learning, 2013. ISBN: 978-1408074954

Fish, J., & Karban, K. (2014). Health Inequalities at the Heart of the Social Work Curriculum.
Social Work Education, 33(1), 15-30.

Healy, J. (2011). Improving Health Care Safety and Quality (Law, Ethics and Governance),
Ashgate, 2011. ISBN: 978-0754676447

Markwick, A. (2013). Person-centred planning and the recovery approach. Learning Disability
Practice, 16(7), 31.

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