Prevention of falls and injuries

The literature review is a critical piece in the research process because it helps a researcher determine what is currently known about a topic and identify gaps or further questions. Conducting a thorough literature review can be a time-consuming process, but the effort helps establish the foundation for everything that will follow. For this part of your Course Project, you will conduct a brief literature review to find information on the question you developed in Week 2. This will provide you with experience in searching databases and identifying applicable resources.

To prepare:

Review the information in Chapter 5 of the course text, focusing on the steps for conducting a literature review and for compiling your findings.

Using the question you selected in your Week 2 Project (Part 1 of the Course Project), locate 5 or more full-text research articles that are relevant to your PICO question. Include at least 1 systematic review and 1 integrative review if possible. Use the search tools and techniques mentioned in your readings this week to enhance the comprehensiveness and objectivity of your review. You may gather these articles from any appropriate source, but make sure at least 3 of these articles are available as full-text versions through Walden Librarys databases.

Read through the articles carefully. Eliminate studies that are not appropriate and add others to your list as needed. Although you may include more, you are expected to include a minimum of five articles. Complete a literature review summary table using the Literature Review Summary Table Template located in this weeks Learning Resources.

Prepare to summarize and synthesize the literature using the information on writing a literature review found in Chapter 5 of the course text.

To complete:

Write a 3- to 4-page literature review that includes the following:

A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question that you developed

Point out inconsistencies and contradictions in the literature and offer possible explanations for inconsistencies.

Preliminary conclusions on whether the evidence provides strong support for a change in practice or whether further research is needed to adequately address your inquiry

Your literature review summary table with all references formatted in correct APA style

Note: Certain aspects of conducting a standard review of literature have not yet been covered in this course. Therefore, while you are invited to critically examine any aspect of the studies (e.g., a studys design, appropriateness of the theoretic framework, data sampling methods), your conclusion should be considered preliminary. Bear in mind that five studies are typically not enough to reflect the full range of knowledge on a particular question and you are not expected to be familiar enough with research methodology to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of all aspects of the studies.

Literature Review

Prevention of falls and injuries has recently been the main focus of research, which has been triggered by the aging people and the increasing awareness of death and morbidity as a result of falls (Prevention, 2012). Reviews of randomized controlled trials of preventing falls concluded that there are several types of intervention. One adult in every three adults aged 65 years and above falls in every year and 2 million get treatment in the emergency departments for injuries related to fall. The risk of falling is increasing at a very high rate. In the year 2007-2008, approximately three percent of the Victorians who are aged 65 and above was admitted in the hospitals as an outcome of falls. In the same year, around seventy percent of the people around 65 and over admitted in the hospitals due to falls were women (Prevention, 2012). Falling may sometimes cause long term consequences such as traumatic brain injuries and hip fractures. Today the health care centers are working towards protecting these old people from the falls. They are doing this through educating these people on the prevention tips (Prevention, 2012).    First, the old people should ensure that they get some exercise. This is because lack of exercise may lead to weak body parts for example, the legs. Weak legs increase the chances of falling. There exists an exercise program such as Tai Chi which increases the strength and improves balance in the bodies of the elderly. It is also important for these elderly people to keep their vision sharp. Poor vision makes it hard for the elderly to move around safely. It will be important if these people get frequent eye checkup and even get glasses where necessary to improve their eyesight. Eliminating hazards at home will reduce the risk of falling of the elderly people. Around half of falls takes place at homes. Home safety check can help in detecting the potential fall hazards that needs to be changed or removed. An example of such hazard is poor lighting (Tremblay & Barber 2005).                                                                                                              The following are the steps for home safety: the things that can trip over such as books, papers and clothes should be removed from the paths where people walk through. Handrails and lights should be installed in all the staircases, the small throw rugs should be removed, the items which are frequently used should be kept in the cabinets which can easily be reached to avoid using the stools to reach them, the lighting in homes should be improved because as one gets older, brighter lights are needed for one to see well, it is also important to use non-slip mats on the shower floors and finally wearing shoes while inside the house and outside the house to avoid walking bare foot. With these simple safety measures, falling can be reduced and that reduces the injuries for the elderly which may cause serious effects in their health (Tremblay & Barber 2005).                                                                                                                                                     The literature was effective though I feel that it will not be necessary to withdraw the psychotropic drugs because there is a role which these drugs play in the bodies of patients. I think the old people should instead be mindful to their medication. Some of the medicine they are given may have some side effects such as dizziness and drowsiness. This increases the chances of falling. There should always be a doctor to review the medication being provided to these people to reduce the side effects of these drugs. Otherwise withdrawing these psychotropic drugs may even cause more problems to the elderly (Leland et al., 2012).               

The evidence provides support for the change. With the research involving the elderly and doctors, the data got is clear enough. However I feel that further research on multi factorial risk assessment should be carried out. The research should include randomized and quasi randomized controlled trials which will evaluate further intervention designs to prevent falls among the elderly people. Those who are potentially modifiable should be identified, the research should also provide treatments which can be delivered by the doctors, what one is supposed to do in case he/ she falls, whether one is supposed to get up by himself or herself, what one is supposed to do in case he/ she is unable to get up by him/ herself and the research should not leave out on where one is supposed to get help in case he suffers such an injury.  The research should not be done to the community or population level but should be done to the specific individuals (Mlenzana, et al., 2013).                                                 

The studies of intervention targeted to the inpatients in the hospitals or the residential care population should be excluded. The studies which did not support the fall outcomes should also be excluded. That means that the research should provide the number of fallers, the rate of falling, the number of people who have currently fallen, and the fall of the related injuries. The studies which would be published as abstracts should also be excluded since these studies may have a lot of inaccuracies and in competencies (Mlenzana et al., 2013).

Literature review summary table

Research questionPurpose of the researchThe methods used for data researchThe key findingsconclusionLimitations of the research
The research question was” What Can Prevent Falls in Elderly?”The purpose of the research was to tell whether the elderly are at the risk of falling, identify the causes of the falls and whether therapy or the exercise programs reduces the risks of falls in the elderly. The review was also to identify the effects of falls among the elderly. The question on whether the assistive devices help in the prevention of falls among the elderly was to be answered. The pace to get help in case of the falls and what to do in case one fell were not to be left behind (Davies, 2011).An interview was the method used to collect the data. Face to face interview to be specific.It was realized that falls among the elderly is very common. These falls leads to serious injuries which can even cause death. The falls can however be prevented by ensuring that there is safety in the homes (Davies, 2011).The research was effective but it only provided basics which were not well detailed. Further research should be carried out on the same topic, where the data collected will provide enough information and answer all the research questions (Davies, 2011).The research had some limitations. First it did not provide enough data to answer all the questions expected, secondly, the research covered only a small area and it would have been more effective if a larger area was covered. The study should not have involved the larger population but only the victims of falling.

References

Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence based practice question: a review of the frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), 75-80.

Leland, N. E., Gozalo, P., Teno, J., & Mor, V. (2012). Falls in newly admitted nursing home residents: a national study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(5), 939-945.

Mlenzana, N. B., Frantz, J. M., Rhoda, A. J., & Eide, A. H. (2013). Barriers to and facilitators of rehabilitation services for people with physical disabilities: A systematic review. African Journal of Disability, 2(1), 6-pages.

Prevention, C. f. (2012, September 20). Falls Among Older Adults. Retrieved from Centers for Disease control and Prevention:

Tremblay, K. R., & Barber, C. E. (2005). Preventing falls in the elderly. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension.

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