Pathophysiology Mind Map

�Explain the pathophysiology of the disorders depicted in the scenarios, including their
associated alterations. Be sure to describe the patient’s adaptive responses to the
alterations.
�Construct a mind map of your selected disorder. Include the epidemiology,
pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as
any adaptive responses to alterations.

Pathophysiology Mind Map

The body employs certain mechanisms to overcome pathological conditions. In some
situations, the mechanisms that the body applies end up causing disease. The body applies
mechanisms that counter the effects of pathological processes. Patients may realize that they are
sick after observing the outcomes of the response processes. Nurses and other clinical care
providers also use the signs in their diagnoses for diseases. It is often possible to determine
pathological situations depending on the mechanisms that the body employs as response. Normal
physiological processes in the body occur in a certain manner, and illnesses alter their pattern.
The changes observed under disease are important in diagnoses, especially when coupled with
patient history and risk factors.
The disease condition in Jenifer’s case presents with hypertension, fever, restlessness,
swollen lymph nodes and sore throat. Jenifer also has erythematous on her throat, and she

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MIND MAP
experiences swollen lymph nodes. Fever, high pulse and heart rate are common signs of a wide
variety of diseases (“Fever, headache, high rate of breathing, and rapid pulse”, 2015). In patients
of hypertension, the rate at which the blood flows from the heart to other organs is elevated. The
pathological condition subjects the heart and blood vessels to straining. Under normal situations,
pediatrics of Jennifer’s age exhibit a heartbeat of 80 to 120 beats in a minute (Wedro, 2013, Pg.
1). Under hypertensive situations, the heart has to pump blood faster and patients can record a
heartbeat as high as 128 beats in a minute as seen with Jennifer. Hypertension causes a number
of alterations on the normal body functioning. Other body processes may have to happen at a
faster rate than normal. Too much blood passing through vessels within a short while could, for
instance, require vessels to offer a larger volume to allow for flow. The body adapts to
hypertension by making changes such as vasodilation. When the blood vessels are dilated, they
allow for more blood to pass through. Too much blood in the vessels causes reddening of body
surfaces. In Jennifer’s case, surface that redden include tympanic membranes. Drying of the skin
could also be a mechanism that the body employs to lose excessive heat. Jenifer has fever, and
the drying of her skin allows her to lose water and heat at the same time. However, the condition
could also depict more serious health conditions such as thyroid insufficiency (Mirror.co.uk,
2012).
The pathological condition in Jack’s case presents with reddening of the hands. Blood
capillaries in the patients are likely to be softened. When too soft, the vessels may dilate easily to
contain lager volumes of blood. The corrosive agents that Jack works with are likely to have
caused softening of the capillary walls. When the capillary walls are too soft, they may rupture
when subjected to pressure. Body alterations that occur with dilated blood capillaries include
higher than normal blood flow to the affected region. Dilated vessels have large volumes and

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MIND MAP
decreased pressure. To match the decreased blood pressure, the body adapts by allowing more
blood to flow into the affected vessels. The occurrence causes surfaces to appear red, but patients
may not necessarily experience pain as in jack’s case. Hardening of capillary walls could reduce
their tendency to rupture. Abnormal reddening of hands may also imply underlying blood
disorders. In most cases, reddening may occur with easy bruising, suggesting problems such as
blood clotting insufficiency. Hormonal imbalances that result with liver damages could also
cause reddening of the palms (Mirror.co.uk, 2012). There are also other conditions that could
cause reddening of the hands. While the condition may seem petty as there is no pain associated
with it, it could be a symptom of serious health abnormalities. Other disease situations that could
cause reddening of the hands include thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis (Mirror.co.uk,
2012).
Martha’s disease presents with abnormalities such as sleep apnea, elevated heart rate, as
well as loss of appetite. Her history suggests high chances of hypertension being the underlying
disease condition. Too many commitments, as seen in caring for an elderly in Martha’s case,
could cause the disruption of sleep and eating behavior. Loss of sleep could cause depression in
patients, which may in turn lead to decreased appetite for food as in Martha’s case. To adapt to
loss of appetite, the body consumes less energy and patients may become less active.
Adaptations for elevated heart rate include vasodilation. Patients with sleep apnea experience
inactivity and depression as a response mechanism. On the other hand, depression could be that
cause of sleep apnea (Rubin, 2012).

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MIND MAP

Hypertension Mind Map

Physiological
and
pathological
conditions
old age,
obesity,
diabetes
Risk
factors

Environmental
factors

5

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MIND MAP

Fatty diets
High
consumption of
low density
cholesterol,
trauma, too
heavy physical
activities

epidemiology

Signs and
symptoms
:
High
pulse rate,
high
heartbeat,
loss of
sleep

pathophysiolog
y
hypertension Adaptive
responses:
Vasodilation
, increased
rate of
metabolic
processes

diagnoses

Patient
history:
Previous
diagnoses

Clinical
presentations:
Increased
heart rate,
high pulse
rate, fever,
restlessness,

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MIND MAP

References

Fever, headache, high rate of breathing, and rapid pulse. (2015). WebMD. R
Mirror.co.uk (2012). Your health is in your hands.


Wedro, B. (2014). Medicine health.

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