The neurological system affects all parts and functions of the body through nerve stimulation. Nerves also control the sensation and perception of pain. While pain can be described in a variety of ways, it is essentially labeled according to its duration and source. As an advanced practice nurse evaluating a patient, you need to consider the following questions: Does the pain quickly come and go, or is it persistent and ongoing? Does the pain arise at the source of injury or in another location? In this Discussion, you compare three common types of pain–acute, chronic, and referred.
�Review this week’s media presentation on the neurological system, as well as Chapter 13 in the Huether and McCance text.
�Identify the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain. Consider the similarities and differences between these three types of pain.
�Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.
Post on or before Day 3 a description of the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain, including similarities and differences between them. Then, explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
?Chapter 12, “Structure and Function of the Neurologic System”
This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system. It also explains the importance of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.
Chapter 13, “Pain, Temperature, Sleep, and Sensory Function”
This chapter covers the role of pain, sleep, stress, and the senses on body functions. It also explores alterations involving pain, sleep, stress, and the senses.
Chapter 14, “Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function”
This chapter explores disorders of cognitive systems, neuromotor function, tone, movement, and motor performance. It also examines factors that impact these disorders as well as clinical manifestations.
Chapter 15, “Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neuromuscular Junction”
This chapter examines the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Tumors of the central nervous system are also covered.
Chapter 16, “Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children”
This chapter focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of neurologic disorders and brain tumors in children. Normal growth and development is also examined.
�McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2012). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
?Chapter 7, “Nervous System Disorders”
This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system to lay a foundation for exploring nervous system disorders. It then examines several nervous system disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke.
Chapter 12, ‘Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla’
This chapter examines disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal medulla. It classifies disorders by the organ or tissue that is most impacted by the disorder. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, symptoms, and signs of the disorders are also covered.
Chapter 19, “Disorders of the Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland”
This chapter covers the structure and function of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. It also explores disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.
Chapter 21, “Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex”
This chapter begins by exploring the structure and function of the adrenal cortex. It then explores disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal cortex.
According to Falkow (2012), pain develops neurologically resulting from the stimulation of a pain nerve sensor at the end of a nerve, damage in the brain where the signal travels, actual damage to a pain sensor plus psychogenic influencers which begin in the brain whose system is not explained.
Falkow Fall et al (2012), argue that acute pain is a sudden one that emanates from body traumatic injury which may be as a result of being hit, a sprain, bone fracture or inflammation of a part. This works to inform someone of possible developing damage to the system and usually ends with consecutive healing. Conversely, in their work, Huether and McCance (2012) further say that chronic pain is that pain that is enduring and long term in nature, it persists even after treatment. Falkow (2012) reiterates that it may occur instantaneously or advance over time. This may last as long as at least 3 or 6 months. This includes arthritis and rheumatic disorder. On the contrary, Huether & McCance (2012), argues that the pain that manifests in a distant area or isolated area far from the point of initiation and linked by a similar spinal section is the real site of origin. For instance, osteo-arthritis that causes pain felt at the knee-point (McPhee & Hammer, 2012).
Pathophysiology. There is reported exacerbated distress both physically and mentally. This is because our mind and the body are closely linked. These effects, according to McPhee and Hammer (2012), may lead to psychosocial instability, dysfunction in certain body parts such as the joints, due to increased deposition of substances as in rheumatoid. Referred pains may indicate metastasis in some body part hence could be proper in cancer diagnosis.
Age and sex have remarkable effects on pain tolerance. Huether & McCance (2012) say that pain tolerance decreases with increasing age. This is similar in both males and females. That of males indicates a smooth decrease with age, women as well show a steady decrease. Researches show that 6% of men can withstand an upper limit pain of about 50 pounds/sq. inch than women. Generally, men endure more pain than women do, to the extent that older men are capable of enduring more pain than younger women (McPhee & Hammer, 2012).
McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2012). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., customed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.