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Teaching and Learning for Nurse Educators

I need a paper on teaching and learning strategies for nurse educators
It is based a Sandra DeYoung teaching strategies for nurse educators. I must develop a
nursing educational program that will demonstrate my understanding of the and ability to
apply the concepts and theories . These concepts must include:

  1. Cultural competency in teaching
  2. Teaching and learning strategies, 3. Awareness of different learning styles, 4. Use of
    technology in a classroom and Adult leaning assessment tools
    It will need a table of contents -that has leaning theories, literature review, Management
    and motivation, program objectives and teaching strategies, learning assessment and

Teaching and Learning for Nurse Educators

Table of Contents
Teaching and Learning for Nurse Educators 3
Introduction 3
Literature Review 3
Theoretical Framework 5
Program Objectives and Teaching Strategies 7
Use of Technology in Learning 8
Learning Assessment 8
Summary 9
References 10


Teaching and Learning for Nurse Educators

Cultural competence is emerging as an important component of the physician education.
Cultural competence training theoretical frameworks emphasize on moving from exposure to the
concept of diversity and fostering of cultural awareness, to the obtaining of cultural skills and
knowledge and applying them to actual diverse populations of patients (Garbutt, 2009). Most
educators contend to the importance of training medical practitioners on cultural competence.
Although the same is being implemented across the nation, there is still some variation which
studies have attributed to the use of the concept of culture whose definition varies among
different faculty members. Other factors that have been indented to be of influence to the
standardization of implementation are the educational methods and teaching strategy. Some
programs use different educational techniques such as journaling, knowledge-based lectures,
role-playing, student discussions, observed structured clinical examination, or simulations.
Although there might be several approaches to an issue, only the application of cultural skills can
be effective in enhancing the student’s awareness and competence.

Literature Review

Garbutt (2009), contends that the definition of the concept cultural competence has evolved
from the diverse perspectives, interests, and needs incorporated in the state legislation, private
organizations and learning settings, and Federal statutes and programs. In this regard cultural
competence can be defined as a set of congruent policies, behaviors, and attitudes operating
within an agency, system, or among professionals and enable them to work effectively within
cross-cultural situations. The word culture in this case is used since it implies integrated pattern
of human behavior including customs, thoughts, communications, values, actions, institutions,
and values of a racial, religious, social, or ethnic group. Consequently, the word competence is
used since it implies possession of the capacity to function effectively. The five essentials for an
organization or agency system to be regarded as culturally competent are:

  1. Valuing diversity
  2. Capacity for a cultural self-assessment
  3. Consciousness of the cultural interaction dynamics
  4. Possession of institutionalized knowledge concerning culture
  5. Having a service delivery system that reflects an understanding of diverse cultures
    The elements should be manifested at all levels of the organization including administrative,
    policy making, and practice as well as in the structures, attitudes, services, and policies. Cultural
    competence in health care implies the system’s ability to offer care to patients of diverse beliefs,
    behaviors, and values, including tailored delivery to meet their cultural, social, and linguistic
    needs. It is demonstrated by awareness and integration of the three population-specific issues
    which are health-related cultural values and beliefs, disease incidence and prevalence, as well as

the treatment efficacy. At an individual health care practitioner’s level, cultural competence is
demonstrated by an examination of own values and attitudes, and the acquisition of the
knowledge, values, attributes, and skills that will allow them to work appropriately in a cross
cultural situation (Garbutt, 2009).
Effective communication between the medical provider or student and the patient is crucial
for quality medical care provision and decreasing of health care disparity. Howell developed the
intercultural communication theory in 1982, in which he suggested five levels through which
students were to progress though. In the first level, known as unconscious incompetence,
students were unable to recognize that they not communicating correctly. In level 2, the students
identified the communication mistakes and even attempted to correct them. In the third level,
students had a cultural understanding while the two next levels include the students attaining of
unconscious competence or unconscious super-competence. On the other hand, Bennett’s theory
grounded in communication theory contends that intercultural sensitivity or cultural competency
is a progression through six basic developmental stages. The six stages starts with denial
transitioning thorough to ethno-relativism. This theory enables educators to evaluate students
through different developmental stages while at the same time gauging the developmental
progression through to the various levels (Garbutt, 2009).

Theoretical Framework
According to Garbutt, (2009) there are four main theories used in the health care cultural
competency training model. These are the Culhane-Pera, Insurgent Multiculturalism,
Transitional Competency, and Campinha-Bocote. The Culhane-Pera model was an adaptation of
the Bennett’s model. The authors of this model combined two of Bennett’s theory stages into one
to make the five-stage Culhane-Pera model of cultural competency. The stage one entailed lack

of recognition by the students concerning the influence that culture has on health care. In stage 2
students displays slight application of the cultural competence within certain situations. During
the third stage, students achieve a full understanding of the role and influence of cultural
competence on health care. Stage 4 was achieved when students continuously put cultural
competence into application and the last stage involved the application in all aspects of the health
The second theory is the Campinha-Bacote’s theory of cultural competence which entails
five dimensions including cultural awareness, cultural desire, cultural encounters, and cultural
skill, and cultural knowledge. Cultural desire was defined as the desire to understand cultural
issues. Cultural awareness was described as the student’s recognition of cultural issues.
Consequently, cultural knowledge encompassed learning the values and beliefs of other cultures;
disease incidence for the specific groups, and the appropriate corresponding management
strategies. In addition, cultural skill was demonstrated by the possession of cultural desire and
awareness, and the subsequent use of cultural knowledge (Garbutt, 2009). Cultural encounters
involved the application of cultural knowledge and skills in the care of specific patients.
The Insurgent multiculturalism theory was developed by Henry Giroux as a medication
of the cultural competence theory. Many education programs involved in cultural competency
programs emphasize competence in communication skills and the tolerance of patient’s cultural
issues. The Insurgent multiculturalism progressed from emphasizing the relationship that exists
between the patient and the medical provider to investigating social factors contributing to the
disparity in health care. These social factors included transportation difficulties, lack of medical
insurance, patient home environment, family dynamics, and poor access to medical facilities.
The theory also focuses on the development of the medical provider professional which entails

instilling empathy, compassion, life-long learning, dedication, serving the greater good, and
sensitivity (Garbutt, 2009).
Garbutt (2009) contends that the Transitional competence theory was established by
Koehn and Swick as an alternative approach to cultural competency training. They postulated
that Transitional competence approach to training is an improved version of the basic cultural
competence training model as it involves the broadening of the definition of culture, implements
more application based training, and addresses student biases. The authors of this theory contend
that these changes in the training of cultural competency will foster uniformity in the
implementation as well as assessment.

Program Objectives and Teaching Strategies
Several teaching and learning strategies exist in practice today; however, the oldest and
most common is the lecture method (Berry, 2009). The lecture is popular due to its many
advantages especially the ability to provide information to a large number of students. It also
enables coverage of large amount of the learning quickly as well as efficient and cost effective
use of the class time. It is one of the best ways to introduce a new material, continue on a
discussion of a topic, and summarize on course content. Lectures facilitate the presentation of
large amounts of complex information. However, lectures do not provide adequate opportunity
for students to process the information and to develop problem solving skills. This approach
results to loss of interest quickly by students and lacks a platform for providing a feedback. It
promotes a teacher-centered environment instead of the student-centered one allowing students
to be passive learners only relying on faculty teaching instead of actively engaging in the
learning process.

In addition, educators can use questioning strategies to develop decision making, critical
thinking and problem solving skills in students (Garbutt, 2009). The bloom’s taxonomy of the
approach which entails the six levels in cognitive learning can provide a framework for the
construction of questions. This approach moves from the simple level to complex level of
learning. Another learning strategy is the self-directed learning which helps the students to take a
more active role in their education. It entails students setting learning goals, deciding learning
methods to use, locating appropriate resources, and evaluating progress. In medical learning it
can be demonstrated by clinical logs, problem based packages, contracts, and distant learning
packages (Berry, 2009). Self-evaluation as a learning strategy allows students to do an
assessment of their own performance, identify strengths and weaknesses, and become more
independent. Learning contracts are written mutual agreements between students and teachers
stating what the learner will do in order to achieve specific learning outcomes. Students are able
to take an increased responsibility and direction for their own learning in clinical learning
(Garbutt, 2009).

Use of Technology in Learning
Research has revealed that the current generation of learners has a preference for
experimental learning, interactivity, immediacy, and digital literacy (Berry, 2009). Use of
technologies such Student Response Systems known as clickers has been incorporated
successfully to enhance student learning and interaction in a didactic pediatric nursing course.
This involved the use of Interactive Television to actively engage students and give immediate
feedback to the students regarding the understanding of lecture content. Students can also use
iPads in the lab to watch step-by-step video of skills as they do them. In a clinical setting, they
are able to refresh on a skill by watching the video. By use of mobile resources for nursing

education in labs, classroom, and clinical venues, students develop necessary skills in clinical
decision and critical thinking.

Learning Assessment
Assessment should be authentic and effective in reflecting broad-based conceptual
understanding and transferable skills (Berry, 2009). One of the tools that can be used is the
Literacy and Numerical Adults Assessment Tool. It is an online adaptive tool providing reliable
information on the writing, numeracy, and reading skills of adults. The Challenger Placement
Tool is designed to assist practitioners determine which challenger book a learner should be
working in order to improve spelling, reading, and grammar. Skillwise captures the lower level
literacy skills of the learner such as knowledge of directionality of text, sight words, and
conventions (Garbutt, 2009). Common Assessment of Basic Skills tool is an easy to administer
and adapt. It is an online tool essential for initial and ongoing assessment to address writing,
reading, computer use, and numeracy. The Essential Skills Indicator is an online tool with a
series of task-based quizzes in document use, reading, and numeracy.


Cultural competency training is increasingly being appreciated as an important aspect of
health care with gradual implementation in physician assistant programs. A variety of teaching
and learning strategies are available for use to provoke active learning. The goal of the educators
should be to prepare the students to become competent clinicians, critical thinkers, clinical
thinkers, problem solvers, self-directed learners, effective communicators, and team player.



Berry, J. (2009). Technology support in nursing education: clickers in the classroom.(NURSING
EDUCATION RESEARCH)(Report).Nursing Education Perspectives, (5), 295.
Garbutt, S. (2009). Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators (2nd ed.). Nursing Education
Perspectives, 30(2), 132.

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