ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND CULTURE
Identify an organization related to health care in which you are interested.
Write a paper (825 to 1,250 words) that addresses the following:
1.What is organizational behavior?
2.What makes up an organization’s culture?
3.What is the significance of the Hawthorne Studies to the study of organizational
4.Compare and contrast the findings of the Hawthorne Studies with at least two other
organizational behavior studies, one of which must be from a source other than the
Organizational Behavior and Culture
Organizational behavior and organizational culture to a great extent influence the performance
of organizations and their influence has been extensively studied. Organizational behavior
denotes how people in groups interact while organizational culture defines how such behaviors
are shaped. In this paper, the concepts of organizational behavior and organizational culture are
discussed, regarding GlaxoSmithKline Plc. (GSK), a healthcare company that deals with the
manufacture of pharmaceutical products. GSK has a rich culture, given that it is the result of a
merger between two companies. This paper also discusses the Hawthorne studies on organization
behavior, comparing it with other organizational behavior studies.
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GSK is a global pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in Brentford, London. GSK
was formed in the year 2000 when SmithKline Beecham merged with Glaxo Wellcome,
becoming among the largest pharmaceutical companies globally. GSK manufactures
pharmaceutical drugs including vaccines and other products such as toothpaste. GSK employs
over 99,000 people in more than 115 countries, following series of acquisitions that have
contributed to the company’s tremendous growth. GSK’s active participation in social
responsibility is notable, and the company participates and funds different medical studies. GSK
has been involved in some scandals among them the sale of unapproved drugs ad market
Organizational behavior refers to how individuals within groups interact. It entails the
human behavior studies that seek to understand how human beings behave in organizational
settings, how individuals relate to the organization and how organizations behave (Thyer,
Dulmus & Sowers, 2012). Organizational behavior may reflect the feelings and attitudes that
employees have such as job satisfaction and commitment to the organization.
Organizational culture consists of the shared values, values and beliefs that guide
organizational behavior. It also includes the guiding principles that the management instills on
employees including goals and objectives, vision and mission of the organization (Grant, 2016).
Organizational culture influences organizational behavior in that individuals within the
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND CULTURE 3
organization tend to align their behavior according to the culture of the organization to promote
conformity and contribute to the achievement of goals and objectives of their organization
(Grant, 2016). GSK seeks to promote a global culture given its worldwide reach. The company
promotes some values designed to promote the company’s performance including integrity,
patient focus, respect, transparency entrepreneurial spirit, passion for achievement and
innovation (GSK, 2017). Through its strong leadership, employees are encouraged to ensure that
the company’s values are considered in every decision-making aspect. GSK also aims at
promoting individual development and rewarding achievement among employees (GSK, 2017).
According to GSK, its culture has played a great role in promoting the company’s potential
through increased customer satisfaction.
Significance of Hawthorne Studies to the study of organizational behavior
Hawthorne Studies sought to understand the relationship between work and productivity,
determining that the surroundings, other people in the organization and employees’ innate ability
determined their performance (Thyer, Dulmus & Sowers, 2012). The Hawthorne Studies have a
significant behavior in the study of organizational behavior. Firstly, the studies were instrumental
in the development of organizational behavior studies by demonstrating how productivity is
influenced by human factors (Zhong & House, 2012). Secondly, the Hawthorne Effect is critical
in understanding how individuals behave in organizations. The studies established that
individuals were likely to change behavior upon noticing that someone was watching them, also
known as the Hawthorne Effect. This has been numerously quoted in organizational behavior
studies, and it is a basis for developing ways of influencing positive behavior in organizations.
Thirdly, the Hawthorne studies were instrumental in understanding the role of work conditions in
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND CULTURE 4
influencing employee behavior. The studies included a series of experiments that determined
work conditions influenced employee behavior. Fourthly, the theory contributes to the relevance
of motivation in enhancing employee behavior and productivity (Thyer, Dulmus & Sowers,
2012). According to these studies, psychological stimulus resulting from the feeling of
recognition could increase worker productivity. Other contributions include the influence of
personal social conditioning and workplace relations may contribute to an individual’s behavior.
Comparison between Hawthorne Studies and other organizational behavior studies
Other studies that have focused on organizational behavior include the X and Y theory
and the Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. Theory X maintains that individuals dislike work and
they are not motivated; such that using authoritarian approach and micromanaging them ensures
that that work is done effectively (Chance, 2013). Punishment, coercion, and fear were
considered motivational techniques compared to reward. Relating this theory to the Hawthorne
studies, it can be established that the approach under theory X cannot work effectively in
enhancing employee productivity. This is because the Hawthorne studies explain the need for
modifying the environment to make employees feel appreciated and thus promote performance.
The Y theory, on the other hand, puts forth that employees are motivated to work and achieve
their goals and objectives, such that they are capable of self-direction (Chance, 2013). In this
relation, managers should not take the role of controlling workers but rather facilitate their
performance. The management should also develop trust relationships with employees and focus
on human resource development. Comparing the Y theory with Hawthorne studies, it can be
established that human behavior can be influenced through setting a positive environment and
thus promote job satisfaction. When job satisfaction is achieved, productivity also increases.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND CULTURE 5
The Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory maintains that two job factors may either cause
satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Tan & Waheed, 2011). Hygiene factors, also known as
dissatisfiers consist of factors that do not influence motivation in the long-run but whose absence
would lead to dissatisfaction. Examples include pay, fringe benefits, organizational policies, job
security and job status (Tan & Waheed, 2011). Motivational factors, also known as motivators
promote real satisfaction and are likely to enhance performance if they are present. Examples
include recognition, responsibility, growth and development opportunities, achievement and
meaningfulness of work (Tan & Waheed, 2011). The Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory can be
related to the Hawthorne studies in that they both advocate for motivation through recognition
and enhancing the work environment in promoting organizational performance.
Organizational behavior and corporate culture can influence the performance of the organization
to a great extent. Given that organizational culture influences behavior and consequently the
ability of employees to deliver, maintaining a positive culture that promotes motivation is
essential in controlling behavior. This is demonstrated in the theories discussed, where the
importance of maintaining an enabling organizational environment is emphasized.
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Chance, P. (2013). Introduction to Educational Leadership & Organizational Behavior. London:
GSK. (2017). Our culture and values.
Tan, T. H. & Waheed, A. (2011). Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory and job satisfaction in
the Malaysian retail sector: the mediating effect of the love of money. Asian Academy of
Management Journal, 16(1), 1-31.
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Thyer, B. A., Dulmus, C. N. & Sowers, K. M. (2012). Human Behavior in the Social
Environment: Theories for Social Work Practice. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Zhong, C. & House, J. (2012). Hawthorne revisited: Organizational implications of the physical
work environment. Research in Organizational Behavior, 32 (2012) 3–22.