Nursing diagnosis

Primary Prevention

Planning before teaching

Name and Credentials of Teacher:Miss Masumbuko, Masters in Epidemiology
The estimated time the teaching will lastThree days
The equipment which are neededBook, Pen, Soap, Water,  a baby toy
The targetAll mothers. They can be accompanied by their spouses.
Location of teachingSub-chief’s camp.
Estimated cost120 USD
TopicExclusive breasting promotes the health of babies and their mothers.

Epidemiologic Rationale for the topic

            Feeding babies on formula feeds or failing to breastfeed exclusively for the recommended 2 years poses health risks for both the baby and mother. Although 44% of infants suffer an otitis media episode during their 1st year in life, there is a double risk for babies who are fed on formula compared to breastfed babies (Kotch, Craig and Lynne 19). For babies who are not breastfed, there is a 3.6-fold escalated risk for lower respiratory tract infection, 2.4-fold risk for necrotizing entereocolitis, and higher risks for developing obesity and other metabolic diseases.

Nursing diagnosis

            For infants who are not breastfeed exclusively or not breastfed at all, there are higher risks of increased infectious morbidity incidence and escalated risks for developing type 2 and type 1 diabetes, childhood obesity, sudden infant death syndrome and leukemia (Kotch, Craig and Lynne 25). Mothers who do not breastfeed have increased risks for ovarian cancer, premenopausal breast cancer, type 2 diabetes, retained gestational weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and myocardial infarction. There is a need for mothers and babies to acquire evidence-based and appropriate care beginning at birth, which is also essential for bonding (Kotch, Craig and Lynne 29).

Readiness for learning

If the community members are ready to learn, they will turn out in large numbers. They will look curious since they will want to know what it is that they do not know about breastfeeding. The members will have note books and pens to write down short notes which they may use for reference.  As they reach the location where the teaching will be taking place, one will be able to note happiness and anxiety on their faces.

The learning theory to be utilized

            I will use the behaviorist learning theory where I will focus on only what is observable. I will get the feedback by checking on their responses. The goal will be to impact knowledge to the community members on how to live a healthy life. They will be able to know how to protect themselves from diseases. 


            The teaching about exclusive breastfeeding is related to one Healthy People 2020 objective; Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. The rationale for applying this objective is that bettering the well-being of infants, mothers, and children is a vital public health goal globally. The next generation’s health depends on their present well-being and can assist in predicting future health challenges for communities, families, and health care system. This objective addresses various health behaviors, conditions, as well as health system indicators that impact on the wellness, health, and the quality of life of families, children, and women.

Relation to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives

            Stephen Gillan’s Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives gives a reflection on the reasons why there has been slow progress and the impact on today’s health systems, 30 years after WHO noted the significance of primary health care in solving health inequality in countries (Whelton et al. 1886). The declaration focuses on preventive services, includes education on present health challenges (health care for mothers and children), communities should participate and contribute in planning, and health care providers are relied upon to train and react to the needs of communities.

Behavioral objective and domainContentstrategies
The mothers will name of the healthy foods form the food pyramid that a breastfeeding mother should take to increase milk production.It is important to combine foods from the five food groups so as to promote health. Fatty and sugary foods should be avoided (Kavey et al., 1560).Mothers will place foods in the appropriate sections in the pyramid and select foods and menus that a mother can consume in a day.
Mother will demonstrate proper latching and positioning of the baby during breastfeeding.Proper latching and positioning promotes effective breastfeeding, prevents pain on the mother, and ensures the baby does not swallow air.Mothers will use the baby to demonstrate proper latching and positioning, and how the baby should be held after feeding.
Mothers will mention the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and the dangers of failing to.There are many benefits why mothers should feed their babies and risks that accompany the failure to breastfeed. Knowing about these two helps mothers in knowing the need to breastfeed exclusively.Each mother will be given a foolscap on which to write the benefits and risks. All the answers will read out and the listed benefits and risks will be highlighted. Mothers will then elaborate on each risk and benefit.
Mothers will mention indicators of when a baby needs to be breastfed and indicators that the baby is full.It is important for a mother to know when to breastfeed the baby and when to stop.There will be an interactive discussion to highlight the various indicators.


            Creativity was applied through the use of interactive discussion groups, giving writing materials to the mothers to write the points they learnt, and using the baby toy to demonstrate proper latching and positioning.

Planned objectives’ evaluation

            The first objective will measure the knowledge the mothers acquired on the healthy and balanced foods that can increase milk production. Mothers will combine various health meals from the food pyramid (Gullotta et al., 279).

            Second, there will be assessment if mothers have learned how to latch and position the baby properly during breastfeeding. They will demonstrate by using the baby toy.

            Third, it will be assessed if mothers have known the benefits and risks associated with exclusive breastfeeding. They will write the points they learnt on sheets of paper and explain them (Whelton et al. 1883).

            Lastly, there will assessment if mothers know when to breastfeed and when to stop. This will be accomplished through using interactive discussion groups to highlight the indicators.

Planned goal evaluation

            After the end of the second month, mothers will be visited in their homes with the aim of finding out their breastfeeding practices and if they still remember some of the things they learnt. When mothers take their children for clinic checkups, it will be observed keenly if they are breastfeeding when the baby needs to and how they are latching and positioning the baby. Overall, there will be a reduction in childhood infections as reported in health centers and babies will increase weight gradually.

Planned teacher and lesson evaluation

On the third day, it will be evaluated if the mothers are fully equipped with knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding, which will be an indication that the teacher and lesson were effective (Gullotta et al., 280). Mothers will also be given a chance to ask any questions about breastfeeding and raise any concerns they might have.


            Mothers may feel ashamed to use the baby toy to demonstrate proper latching and positioning. If a mother is ashamed to do and she attended with her baby, she can use the baby to demonstrate. The teacher will be the first to demonstrate and later she will ask the mothers to repeat.


            The presentation will begin by introductions and finding out what mothers know about breastfeeding. It will end by correcting the improper breastfeeding beliefs and practices the mothers held before. Babies will be observed to note when they need to breastfeed and when they are full.

            Before being implemented, this proposal will be assessed by a community and public health providers so that they can give a feedback on opportunities and areas that need improvement.

Work cited

Gullotta, Thomas P., et al. “Primary Prevention and Health Promotion.” Dentistry 10 (2003): 268-282.

Kavey, Rae-Ellen W., et al. “American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood.” Circulation 107.11 (2003): 1562-1566.

Kotch, Jonathan, Craig Blakely, and Lynne Bond. “Primary Prevention and Health Promotion.” (2003).

Whelton, Paul K., et al. “Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from The National High Blood Pressure Education Program.” Jama 288.15 (2002): 1882-1888.