Immigration and Acculturation

Immigration and Acculturation
Use the readings of this unit regarding the concerns confronting Asian Americans/Pacific
Islanders and Hispanic/Latino Americans in the United States to complete this discussion
� Explain how institutional racism could result in internalized oppression for members of
marginalized populations. Provide an example.
� Discuss how historical and current views on immigration result in challenges. Provide
an example.
� In your own words, define acculturation and provide an example of how this may
impact ethnic minorities and their families.
� In Sue and Sue’s Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, read Chapter
25, “Counseling and Poverty,” pages 517-526.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Early in the course we explored the principles of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy
(MCT). We learned that MCT is considered a meta-approach to counseling, or an
approach that transcends a counselor’s theoretical orientation. In this unit, we will consider
culturally relevant strategies, particularly with respect to Asian Americans and
Hispanic/Latino Americans.
Although it is helpful to conceptualize cultural competence in terms of awareness,
knowledge, and skill, it is difficult to separate these phenomena in providing culturally
competent counseling. In order to be effective, we need to be aware of how our
characteristics, the characteristics of counseling, and the characteristics and concerns of
the client will impact the counseling relationship. We also have to draw on our general
knowledge of the client’s group memberships and how those may inform the client’s
presentations, needs, and effective practice. And then we have to put that awareness and
knowledge into play in the counseling and advocacy strategies we employ in the promotion
of optimal health and well-being for our clients.
Developing our awareness and knowledge of the central role of communication styles and
the sociopolitical context of communication will be essential to our practice. We will
consider the literature as it pertains to MCT and the preference for active-directive forms
of helping among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic/Latino Americans
(Sue & Sue, 2013). In addition we will explore cultural considerations specific to Asian
Americans and Pacific Islanders and Hispanic/Latino Americans, and the implications of
cultural norms and acculturation for counseling.

  1. Articulate how a counselor’s personal, cultural self-awareness may potentially impact
    effective counseling practices.
  2. Recognize contextual and systemic dynamics that impact counseling.
  3. Articulate the impact of immigration, poverty, and welfare on individuals and family
  4. Articulate the influence of internalized oppression and institutional racism on
    individuals and family systems.
    Use your textbook, Sue and Sue’s Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice,
    to complete the following:
    � Read Chapter 8, “Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies,” pages 209-232.
    � Read Chapter 16, “Counseling Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders,” pages 393-407.

� Read Chapter 17, “Counseling Latinos,” pages 409-424.
Use the Internet to read Payne’s 2003 article, “Understanding and Working With Students
and Adults From Poverty

Immigration and Acculturation

Immigrants face various challenges in their host countries because of the differences in
the culture and way of life. US host various immigrants including Asian Americans/Pacific
Islanders and Hispanic/Latino Americans. This paper define acculturation, explains how
institutional racism could result in internalized oppression for members of marginalized
populations and discus how historical and current views on immigration result in challenges
providing examples.
Acculturation is the changes that immigrants experience when they meet with members
of the host countries (Perez, 2003). The immigrant often faces some changes and challenges in
trying to fit in the cultures and ways of life of the host countries. Acculturation may impact on
the ethnic minorities and families in many ways. It may cause psychological trauma to the
immigrant especially if they are forced to get accustomed to the way of life of people of the host
countries (Sue & Sue, 2013). It may also affect the immigrants leading to loss of their language
identity, their mode of clothing, foods eaten among many others.
Institutional racism could result to oppression for members of marginalized populations
in many ways. One of the ways is denial of opportunities such as employment opportunities to
these members, denial of schools and health facilities to immigrants (Fontes, 2002). These

therefore results to a feeling of hatred among the immigrants making them to lead miserable and
lonely lives.
Historical and current views on migration can result into various challenges. Historically,
immigrants were looked down upon and most of them were believed to have fled from their
countries because of civil war and political reasons. Therefore, these people were viewed as
individuals that were in need of dire assistance. Current view on immigrants has changed as
various reasons compel people to move from one country to another. People migrate in search of
education, employment opportunities and many other reasons not political reasons or civil wars
per se (Sue & Sue, 2013). Regardless of these views, they lead to various challenges such as
accessibility to the essential services and such. They are viewed as foreigners and therefore, they
are not given much attention like the hosts making them face many challenges such a poverty.



Fontes, L. (2002). Child Discipline and Physical Abuse in Immigrant Latino Families: Reducing
Violence and Misunderstandings. Aronson. Journal of Counseling & Development,.
80(1): 31-40.
Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, Social Identity, and Social Cognition: A New Perspective.
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1):35-55