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Healthcare administration

Theories and Theorists
Craft a paper in which you address the following instructions and questions:

  1. Identify two key theories in your field. {My Field is Healthcare Administration}
  2. Identify the theorist(s) and sources of the theories (key articles or books) in your
  3. Describe the basic tenets of these theories.
  4. Analyze the relationship between the two theories that you have found.
  5. Explain why these theories are so important to your discipline and how they relate to the
    research that you are interested in doing.
  6. Include a reference list for the five “classics” or influential works you have found

Theories and Theorists

Healthcare administration is concerned with the management, administration, and
leadership of hospital networks, hospitals, health care systems, and public health systems. There
are a number of theories that are applicable in the field. This paper aims at analysis two of them;
Lewin’s change management model and the transcultural nursing theory/ culture care theory.

Healthcare Administration theories

Lewin’s change management model is basically concerned with the manner in which
organizations manage change, which may be determined by the people involved, the change, and
nature of business. Handling change appropriately makes an organization to thrive well and
therefore, there is a need to comprehend how people deal with and understand change processes.
The Unfreeze- Change- Refreeze model is an easy-to-understand and simple framework for
change management. The theorist used an analogy of transforming an ice block’s shape.
The transcultural nursing theory has presently developed as a nursing discipline. As
defined by Leininger, transcultural nursing involves a comparative cultures’ study with an aim of
understanding culture universality/ similarities and differences across human groups (Seibold &
Kang, 2008). For comprehensive transcultural nursing, there is a need to understand different
people’s culture, religion, cultural identity, culture- universals, culture- specifies, material and

non-material culture, acculturation, cultural awareness, and nursing competent care among
others. According to the theorist, there are three action models and nursing decisions towards a
culturally congruent care; restructuring or cultural care repatterning, negotiation or cultural care
accommodation, and maintenance or cultural preservation.
Theorists and the theories’ sources

The change management model was developed by Kurt Lewin, a psychologist and social
scientist, in the 1950s. The transcultural nursing theory was founded by Madeleine Leininger.
Leininger is acknowledged as a pioneer transcultural universal nursing consultant and nursing
theorist. She also developed the transcultural nursing concept as well as the model of
ethnonursing research. The development of Leininger’s theory can be comprehended from her
books; Transcultural Nursing (2002), Transcultural Nursing (1995), and Culture Care Diversity
and Universality (1991).

Basic tenets

According to Lewin, many people choose and operate within particular safety zones. In
this regard, the identified three change stages that may be compared to the basic tenets of the
theory. The unfreeze stage involves minimizing the forces that ensure the status quo is
maintained as well as dismantling the present mind set (Larossa, 2005). This is achieved by
presenting a confrontational event or problem so that people can acknowledge the need to change
and look for novel solutions. The second stage is transition and it involves coming up with new
attitudes, values, and behaviors through development techniques, process changes, and
organizational structure. A moment of confusion may be experienced as people shift from the old
way of doing things to the new. Lastly, the freeze stage involves crystallizing and adapting the
ownership of the novel way of doing things. Freezing is an essential step as it helps an

organization in reinforcing the changes and prevents it from reverting to the old way of doing
The basic concepts that support Leininger’s transcultural theory are outlined here.
Wellness and illness are shaped by a number of factors such as coping skills, perception, and a
patient’s social level. Nursing entails a very vital component; cultural competence. All human
life spheres are influenced by culture, which also defines illness, health, and the search for
treatment. Cultural and religious knowledge are crucial for health care (Gagnon, Jansen &
Michael, 2008). A cultural group’s health concepts may make the people fail to seek
technological medical treatment procedures. There is a need for flexibility among health care
providers when designing services, policies, and programs aimed at meeting the concerns and
needs of culturally diverse populations. A majority of the lay illness cases have multiple
causalities and there may be a need for different approaches to cure, treatment, and diagnosis.
The utilization of alternate or traditional health care delivery models is very varied and may
conflict with western health care practice models. Culture develops from the social structure as a
result of inter personal interactions and it guides acceptable behavior. For a nurse to be able to
offer care to a client from a different ethnic or cultural background, there first should be effective
intercultural communication.

Their relationship

The transcultural nursing theory and Lewin’s change management theory have a
relationship in that when considering to implement a change in an organization, institution, or
department, apart from moving the change through the unfreeze, change, and re-freeze stages, it
is also important to consider the cultural aspects of all the employees so as to ensure that the

change is embraced and practiced by all. This is founded on the fact that a people’s culture
determines the behaviors they adapt.
Significance of the theories in the discipline and how they are connected to the research
The transcultural nursing theory is vital in healthcare administration in that it helps nurse
administrators in appreciating, respecting, and understanding the diversity and individuality of
patient values, spirituality, beliefs and culture in regard to illness, its cause, meaning, outcome,
and treatment. The theory also encourages the maintenance and development of an emotional,
physical, and spiritual self-care that may involve the introduction of therapies such as pancha
karma and ayurveda (Feiock, Steinacker & Park, 2009).
Nurses as well as researchers in the field should be informed of and sensitive to clients’
cultural needs. A researcher ought to be aware that the present nursing practice requires nurses to
identify as well meet diverse groups’ cultural needs, comprehend the client’s cultural and social
reality, community and family, develop expertise so as to be able to implement strategies that are
culturally acceptable when offering nursing care, and use and identify resources that are
embraced by the clients.
Lewin’s change management theory is significant in healthcare administration since an
acknowledgment of the three unique change stages helps in implementing the required change.
In this regard, unfreezing involves coming up with a motivation to change. This is because it is
important to transform existing work place attitudes as well as prepare the ground. There is also
a need to communicate about the required change so that people can comprehend and support it.
The change process can be effective if people are empowered to accept the novel working ways
and learn novel behaviours, attitudes, and values, and through the promotion of effective
communications (Blanco & Pacheco, 2009). Challenges are recognized and action plans created

to facilitate implementation. There is a need for maximum flexibility during the implementation
and planning about the change. The refreezing involves an organization that has returned to a
stability sense and realized change benefits. This success can motivate the organization into other
forms of change. Rewards and praise should be emphasized on. These factors should be noted
keenly by a researcher.


Blanco, M., & Pacheco, E. (2009). Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of
two generation of Mexican women. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 40 (2),
Feiock, R. C., Steinacker, A., & Park, H. J. (2009). Institutional collective action and economic
development joint ventures. Public Administration Review 2 (69), 256–270.
Gagnon, M. A., Jansen, K. J. & Michael, J. H. (2008). Employee alignment with strategic
change: A study of strategy-supportive behavior among blue-collar employees. Journal
of Managerial Issues, 20(4), 425–443.
Larossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of
Marriage and Family, 67(4), 837–857.
Seibold, D. R. & Kang, P. (2008). Using critical praxis to understand and teach teamwork.
Business Communication Quarterly 4 (71), 421–438.

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