*Briefly describe each stage of the flood disaster.
* For each stage, explain one intervention you would recommend using survivors at that stage. BE SPECIFIC AND JUSTIFY YOUR SELECTION.
* Explain any cultural, ethical, and legal issues related to the treatment of survivors of the disaster AND the interventions you chose.
Flood: Stages on the Road to Recovery
Flood is an overflow of water on the earth’s surface that is not normally covered by water throughout the seasons. It may be an overflow of water from the sea, lake, or dams due to heavy rains. De (2010) notes that the rise in water level resulting from flood often depend on the cumulative rainfall because the outflow of waters bodies such as lakes and rivers are dependent on the level of the lake. In the case study about the small town, the residents are notified regarding the forth coming flood in good time. The notice shows that the flood is caused by the previous experience of heavy rainfall. Just like any other risk, flooding is harmful and might be hard to control physically. Marsalek, Stancalie, & Balint (2006) assert that the flood emergency management is a cycle of events that include mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Therefore, the paper discusses how the rescue can be done to salvage the lives and properties in the town.
Stages on the Road to Recovery
The Pre-Flood Reduction Stage
Pre-flood reduction stage is required to enable those based in the affected areas manage the risk emerging from flood. Public awareness, preparedness, and campaigns about flood defense should be planned and carried out by state authorities (Marsalek et al., 2006). The process can be done by creating community awareness about the disaster and offering the flood victims possible protection measures. These protection measures include public education programs, awareness about flood prone areas, warning signs, and evacuation procedures (De, 2010). From the case, there was an emergency notification such that those who adhered to the warning were saved. However, those who did not take the warning seriously found themselves in danger. Some families packed the much they could and went out of the town.
Intervention for Victims of Pre-Flood Reduction Stage
The appropriate intervention during pre-flood stage should involve advising the public about the need to embrace and take the warning about looming floods seriously. After creating community awareness, possible measures to resolve risks associated with flood risk should aim at preventing loss of lives and properties and other possible destruction (Marsalek, et al., 2006). The procedure should involve identifying the areas that are usually affected flooding and the possible damages that may occur. The previous history about the same hazard might be used. Thereafter, an analysis of the situation is carried out to speculate the outcome. For instance, the residents who adhered to the warning embraced measures such as wrapping plastic bags for safety. At the same time, the emergency workers mobilized the transfer of people to other regions that were out of floods. Some families were evacuated to safe place using boats. However, those who did take the emergency warning refused to leave the town and eventually drown in their homes (Marsalek, et al., 2006). Overall, there should be emphasis about interventions such as educating the public about the importance of emergency warning. This would help in preventing the risks associated with the flood.
Post-Flood Risk Reduction Stage
Post flood risk reduction can be applied to resolve problems associated with floods. Response to the risk occurrence among those in the town involves evacuation (De, 2010). The intervention at this stage involves ensuring that the authorities concerned should build facilities and structures aimed at resolving possible flood risks from occurring in the future. For example, construction of dams, reservoirs, ponds, flood channels, and flood walls would divert water that would otherwise cause flooding (De, 2010). Water for consumption can also be protected from contamination to eliminate introduction of toxic substances from floods into the water bodies supplying humanity.
Flood Recovery Stage
After responding to the flood, people should focus on recovery through cleanup. Therefore, people should avoid building or staying in flood prone areas; flood prone areas should be reserved for other uses like construction of parks.
Intervention for Victims of Recovery Stage
The government should intervene to facilitate recovery by implementing appropriate plans to evacuate those in flooded areas. There should also be an elevation of residential areas that are flooded (Marsalek, et a., 2006). People should further use water resistant building materials such as concrete to protect buildings from being destroyed by floods. Water tight flood barriers should also be use for basement openings in large buildings.
Development and Rehabilitation from Flood-Recovery
The last stage of recovery from flood includes development and rehabilitation. In the case study, families found themselves overburdened with financial obligations to buy new clothing, furniture, and household items. Financial aid program (FEMA), does not fully help recover the financial loss experienced by flood survivors. According De (2010), the government and the municipalities should participate actively in the rehabilitation programs. Programs such as job opportunities, donation, relief food, and other community aid programs can help salvage the situation.
Possible Cultural, Ethical, and Legal Issues Related to Treatment of Flood Survivors
There are certain legal, ethical, and cultural issues that might affect the flood recovery and intervention at different stages; these effects might be either positive or negative. From the legal perspective, the government’s response could be prone to other legal issues based on whether the government responded in-time, measures taken by the government to curb such situation, and whether there was possible warning regarding the looming floods (Great Britain, 2008). The other legal issue associated with flood intervention is the availability of effective strategy to ensure that flood management programs are adhered to as well as accountability to hold any who violates responsible. The issue of ethics and culture might arise regarding the training and educational programs for flood recovery and intervention (Great Britain, 2008). From the ethical perspective, the need for the community to embrace erosion control in steep regions among other strategies might arise. Culturally, the community might find it had to abandon certain practices such as subsistence farming and belief in superstition at the expense of warning from the metrological department. Great Britain (2008) asserts that the need for people to vacate regions prone to floods and allow such regions to be converted into parks might face legal, cultural, and ethical concerns. For example, some might find it hard to leave a region because of the cultural attachment to an area while others might reason that converting flooding areas into parks is unethical because it would endangers wild animals.
Flood is a natural phenomenon that occurs majorly during rainy seasons. Therefore, at any point, there should measures outlined to address the issue of flood whenever it occurs. Overall, flood recovery process can better be handled if it categorized into pre-flood, recovery, post-flood, and development and rehabilitation. Each of these stages requires specific intervention both aimed at recovery and offering support to the flood-victims at each stage. Although there might be successful flood recovery and intervention, the process sometimes experiences ethical, legal, and cultural issues that the stakeholders should handle for successful flood recovery and intervention.
De, W. D. (2010). Flood recovery, innovation and response II. Southampton: WIT Press.
Great Britain. (2008). Flooding: Fifth report of session 2007-08. London: Stationery Office.
Marsalek, J., Stancalie, G., & Balint, G. (2006). Transboundary floods: Reducing risks through flood management. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
Sene, K. (2013). Flash floods: Forecasting and warning. New York: Springer.