Early Childhood Obesity


Write an essay in which you document your process of finding a research topic, deciding on sources, developing a search strategy, and summarizing references. Include the following:

A. Problem Statement

1. Provide a problem in your field of interest that has a scope that can be studied within a typical masters program.

2. Describe at least three symptoms of the problem or pieces of evidence that illuminate the problem.

B. Literature Search: Find materials relevant to the problem you have chosen.

1. List at least seven keywords that are representative of the problem and that you will use to guide your information search.

2. List at least two resources that you will use to find your information.

3. After performing your searches and considering your results, describe how you modified your keyword or source searches to retrieve the best results.

Note: If you did not need to modify your searches, discuss why your search was successful without revision.

4. Discuss which keywords yielded the most fruitful searches.

C. Data Evaluation: Using the CARS checklist (credibility, accuracy, reasonableness, and support), determine which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the problem you have chosen.

1. In APA format, cite at least 10 journal articles or dissertations that you have determined to be appropriate (credible, accurate, reasonable, and well supported).

2. Using the elements of the CARS checklist, justify your determination that each of the sources is appropriate.

Note: It may be useful to provide your CARS checklist information in a table format.

D. Annotated Bibliography: Review and organize the sources by completing parts 16 below for each of the sources you have cited.

Note: An annotated list is a list to which you add (in your own words) other relevant information and comments about the book for future reference. For this assignment, your annotations should include the information listed below. See the web links below for more information on annotated reference lists.

1. Describe the content (focus) of the source.

2. Describe the usefulness of the source.

3. Discuss any limitations that the source may have.

4. Describe the audience that the source is intended for.

5. Discuss the authors conclusions.

6. Describe your reaction to the source.

E. When you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format.

Early Childhood Obesity: Explore Parent’s Knowledge and Perception- Annotated bibliography


Introduction: The aim of this document is to present a detailed analysis of the ten resources which will be used in the research study looking at the extent of knowledge that is possessed by parents of children who are drawn from low income neighborhoods. The ten sources that were used in this exercise will be illustrated and briefly subjected to an analysis and the CARS checklist. In line with this, the process that the researcher used in gathering data for the literature review will be analyzed.

Problem Statement: It has been noted that the rate of obesity in pre-school age has been increasing at a very high rate. This is therefore indicative of an increasing number of children being exposed to the health complications associated with obesity. Many of these are cardiovascular diseases. The main issue that arises with regard to this situation is the role that the parents play in this.  This is because they are the children’s primary care-givers and are clearly failing in ensuring quality healthcare for their children. The knowledge that these parents have is clearly wanting. This is based on observations that have been made by United States government’s Center for Control and Prevention of Disease.

Three key symptoms of early childhood obesity are having a higher than normal Body Mass Index or BMI which is an estimation of the total mass carried in relation to the height. The second key symptom of childhood obesity is overeating by the said child. The third symptom of childhood obesity is an overly sedentary lifestyle on the side of the child. Basically he or she prefers to avoid most of the activities that their peers are engaging in (Taveras, 2010).

B: Literature Search

Keywords: The seven keywords that have been used while searching for information are childhood, obesity, parenting, healthcare, cardiovascular, overweight and low-income.

Resources: The two resources that were used in the search for data are largely online based. These are in two forms however, they are online bibliographic databases and healthcare oriented websites.

Modification of keywords: To get the most accurate or relevant results for this study, the keywords were modified into simple statements or word combinations so as to attract the desired results. Examples of word combinations and simple statements that were used include the following, “Symptoms of childhood obesity”, “Parents healthcare cardiovascular”, “Obesity +Parenting”, “parenting+ Knowledge+ obesity” and “Early Childhood obesity.” The reason why this was done was to get diverse views of the subject and therefore come up with a wholesome analysis.

The keywords that generated the most fruitful searches were childhood obesity and also parenting obesity. “Childhood obesity” generated results that had data on the statistics relating to the prevalence of childhood obesity. “Parenting Obesity” on the other hand forth results relating to the role that parents are playing with relation to either fighting or promoting obesity.

Akhtar‐Danesh et al (2010)This article’s credibility comes from the fact that its authors are all attached to health related institutions. The accuracy is drawn from due process followed in framing the hypothesis and analysis of the results. It is reasonable due to the relevance it has to the introduction and background and support information is mainly in form of the addresses of their respective institutions.
Akinbami et al, (2009)This source too is credible given the government bodies associated with the authors. Accuracy is derived from the proper use of statistical data. Reasonableness was seen in the conclusion which was based on adequate reflection upon the results. Support on the other hand is in the form of a web link at the bottom of the document.
Andrews et al (2010)Credibility comes from the contribution of these authors in other similar articles. Accuracy is seen in the methodology used to collect and analyze data on parental behavior. Reasonableness is manifested in the linking of obesity to the research content and conclusion. Support is provided through a link to similar articles and the authors’ profiles.
Evans et al, (2011)The authors’ credentials give the source credibility. Accuracy on the other hand is seen in the diligent analysis of results on children’s eating habits. Reasonableness is seen in the coverage of a wide range of eating habits and situations.
Moore et al (2011)The credibility of this source comes from the systematic manner that the article is presented. Accuracy is seen in the clarity of thoughts held by the authors while reasonableness is seen in the adherence to the specific objectives throughout the task. Support can be accessed through the institutional affiliation indicated for the different authors.
Pockock et al (2010)Credibility comes from the background of the article as well as the authors.  Accuracy is seen in the linkage of parental knowledge to child obesity. Reasonableness is seen in the direct manner the article tackles the influence of parents on their children’s health. Support is mainly in the form of contact information for the authors.
Shub et al (2013)Credibility comes from the comparison of this article to others on the hyperlink provided. Accuracy is seen in the use of specific figures for respondents. Reasonableness is seen in the manner that the research was framed in totality. Support too is provided through a hyperlink on each author’s name.
Sing et al (2010)The source’s credibility is attained through the use of governmental secondary statistical data. Accuracy came from the fact that the results indicate the distribution of various weights across the country’s population. Reasonableness comes from the further mathematical operation of already existing statistics which adds their value. Support is mainly seen through availability of the original data for download and analysis.
Spivak et al (2010)Credibility is achieved through the surveying of actual healthcare professionals. Accuracy comes from the manner in which their responses were themed and organized. Reasonableness comes from the fact that this researcher saw it fit to consider the nurses’ views.
Taveras et al (2010)The source’s accuracy and credibility comes from the fact that it is possible to follow the logical path used in research. Reasonableness is seen in the consideration of various ethnicities and support comes from the provision of a web link for contacting the authors. 

All sources that were selected for this study satisfied each and every parameter applied in the CARS test. This is because they all appear to be credible. This is due to the formatting and the presentation of arguments by the authors. The credentials of the authors also aid in lending the sources credibility. Accuracy on the other hand came from the clear empirical method applied by the scholars in researching on childhood obesity and related issues. The results of the research are clearly linked to the objectives. Despite having hypotheses, all of these articles used maintained reasonableness though there was a slight bias toward the objectives set but this is acceptable in research so long as the conclusions and methods are justified. Though there was seldom the presentation of contact information, the institutions which authors are affiliated to; are clearly indicated at the beginning of the articles.

Annotated Bibliography

Akhtar‐Danesh et al (2010) The focus here is parent knowledge on causative factors of childhood obesity. This provides pointers regarding the healthcare priorities parents have. The limitation is that there is no consideration of income levels. The main audience of this source is nurses. The conclusion reveals multiple foci held by parents regarding causes of and prevention of childhood obesity. This article is highly relevant to my study’s introduction.

Akinbami et al, (2009) The key focus here is the effect of figures such as child weight and height for their children. These features are crucial for BMI calculation. The figures differ greatly with those figures that are measured. The audience here is providers of pediatric healthcare. The conclusion shows that there is a discrepancy between these values and those physically measured and this poses a problem in determination of childhood obesity. The findings of this study are quite enlightening.

Andrews et al (2010) The focus of this source was the involvement of parents in obesity awareness campaigns. This consequently makes the audience healthcare information providers. The author concludes by saying that the involvement of parents has a lot of potential for the fight against childhood obesity. The angle adopted by this study is important in exposing the gaps.

Evans et al, (2011) The focus here is the parent’s feeding practices on childhood obesity. The audience of this article is parents, doctors and parents. This article concludes that ethnicity and income have an impact on the feeding practices carried out by parents. This is by far the most relevant source to this study given it covers income bracket of parents.

Moore et al (2012) This is an article about parental concern and how it impacts the management of obesity. The audience is healthcare providers as well as parents. The author concludes that the more concerned a parent is, the higher the likelihood of childhood obesity being prevented and managed. This source will be instrumental in the formulation of this task’s objectives.

Pockock et al (2010) The main concern here is parent opinions on the significance of early intervention methods to prevent obesity. This is aimed at parents and healthcare professionals. The conclusion indicates that majority of parents interviewed believe early intervention measures are crucial for the management of the obesity. This source shows the implications of parental intervention.

Shub et al (2013) This source’s focus is the formation of parental healthcare opinions. The audience is the healthcare providers. The conclusion points that notions carried by a mother during pregnancy are bound to stick after giving birth. The article is concluded by pointing some parental practices to beliefs they held prior to giving birth. This source provides information on the source of some parental decision making patterns.

Singh et al, (2010) The main focus here is the different rates of obesity prevalence across the United States. The targeted audience here is healthcare provider and policy makers. The source’s conclusion indicates that different states have different rates of early childhood obesity. This article will help in giving insight about economic influence on childhood obesity.

Spivak et al (2010) The focus here is the main knowledge base of healthcare providers. The article concludes by stating that the main focus of nurses and doctors with regard to childhood obesity is related to barriers to effective healthcare. This source will help in providing recommendations for the problem.

Taveras et al (2010) This source focuses on the impact of racial and ethnic differences on early childhood obesity. This is mainly targeted at the healthcare providers community. This article is concluded by stating that the ethnicity of a child has an effect on the risk of being obese. These findings will be compared to the findings made in this study.

C: References

Akhtar‐Danesh, N., Dehghan, M., Morrison, K. M., & Fonseka, S. (2011). Parents’ perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: AQ‐methodology study. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 23(2), 67-75.

Akinbami, L. J., & Ogden, C. L. (2009). Childhood overweight prevalence in the United States: the impact of parent-reported height and weight. Obesity, 17(8), 1574-1580.

Andrews, K. R., Silk, K. S., & Eneli, I. U. (2010). Parents as health promoters: A theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity. Journal of health communication, 15(1), 95-107.

Evans, A., Seth, J. G., Smith, S., Harris, K. K., Loyo, J., Spaulding, C., … & Gottlieb, N. (2011). Parental feeding practices and concerns related to child underweight, picky eating, and using food to calm differ according to ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income. Maternal and child health journal, 15(7), 899-909.

Moore, L. C., Harris, C. V., & Bradlyn, A. S. (2012). Exploring the relationship between parental concern and the management of childhood obesity. Maternal and child health journal, 16(4), 902-908.

Pocock, M., Trivedi, D., Wills, W., Bunn, F., & Magnusson, J. (2010). Parental perceptions regarding healthy behaviours for preventing overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Obesity Reviews, 11(5), 338-353.

Shub, A., Huning, E. Y., Campbell, K. J., & McCarthy, E. A. (2013). Pregnant women’s knowledge of weight, weight gain, complications of obesity and weight management strategies in pregnancy. BMC research notes, 6(1), 278.

Singh, G. K., Kogan, M. D., & van Dyck, P. C. (2010). Changes in state-specific childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in the United States from 2003 to 2007. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine.

Spivack, J. G., Swietlik, M., Alessandrini, E., & Faith, M. S. (2010). Primary care providers’ knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers to the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity, 18(7), 1341-1347.

Taveras, E. M., Gillman, M. W., Kleinman, K., Rich-Edwards, J. W., & Rifas-Shiman, S. L. (2010). Racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 125(4), 686-695.

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