Focusing on types of crises and effective intervention strategies. Pay attention to the cultural, ethical, and legal issues related to the treatment of individual, couple, and family crisis survivors.
�Identify two types of crises experienced by individuals, couples, and/or families. One of these MUST be the crisis of suicide.
�Select two research articles that discuss interventions for each of the crises you chose (totaling four articles).
�Think about the merits and limitations of the interventions discussed in your articles and that you would implement in your own practice and why.
�Consider the cultural, ethical, and/or legal issues related to counseling survivors of the two crises you chose.
The assignment: (2-3 pages)
�Cite the articles you selected in correct APA format.
�Explain the merits and limitations of the interventions discussed/recommended in the articles.
�Explain which intervention(s) you most likely would use in your own practice and why.
�Explain the primary cultural, ethical, and/or legal issues related to counseling survivors of the two types of crises you chose.
Crisis Intervention Strategies
?Chapter 8, “Crisis of Lethality”
?Chapter 10, “Partner Violence”
?Chapter 12, “Personal Loss: Bereavement and Grief”
�Article: Krause, E. D., Kaltman, S., Goodman, L. A., & Dutton, M. A. (2008). Avoidant coping and PTSD symptoms related to domestic violence exposure: A longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(1), 83-90.
�Article: Stride, S., Geffner, R., & Lincoln, A. (2008). The physiological and traumatic effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 8(1/2), 83-101.
�Article: Trotter, J. L., & Allen, N. E. (2009). The good, the bad, and the ugly: Domestic violence survivors’ experiences with their informal social networks. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43(3-4), 221-231.
�Article: Beeble, M. L., Bybee, D., Sullivan, C. M., & Adams, A. E. (2009). Main, mediating, and moderating effects of social support on the well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence across 2 years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 718-729.
Crisis with Individuals, Couples, and/or Families
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 1 million people die every year as a result of suicide. The question on the main driver towards suicide has not yet been answered. However, it is believed that a person who takes the option of committing suicide is normally in so much pain such that that they find no other option. Committing suicide is normally a desperate action where one is normally in a desperate situation and is in attempt to run away from the suffering which is not bearable. For one to reach to that decision, he is normally blinded by feelings of self-hatred, isolation, and hopelessness. One does not find (Stride et al 2008 )relief somewhere else rather than death. Most of the suicidal people, however, wish that they had another alternative rather than death (Trotter et al, 2009). Most of the individuals who are suicidal normally give warnings before the act or at least they give signs. The best way to prevent suicide is to take seriously the warnings and act as quickly as possible. In case one realizes that an individual is suicidal, they can play a role in preventing suicide. The suicidal individual can be given the alternative options and be showed that people care for him/her and there is a reason to live. One can also direct the individual to a doctor or a psychologist to intervene. The major warning signs for suicide include: talking so much about killing oneself, talking so much about death, and seeking things which can be used to commit suicide. If the person seems depressed, these signs are very dangerous. Another sign for suicide is hopelessness. The hopeless people talk of unbearable situations and even put across statements like;“I do not have anything to look forward to”. Dramatic mood swings and sudden changes in personality, for instance, one becoming rebellious all at once may be signs of suicide. In case one seems to lose interest in the day to day activities, it is important to investigate the reason (Stride et al., 2008).
The most effective intervention for this problem is to restrict the access to the common methods of suicide such as the firearms and chemicals like pesticides. The method has proved effective in reducing the rates of suicide but it is not easy to distinguish between the ones purchasing the chemicals with genuine purposes and those who are not. There is also need to embrace multi-sectorial approaches which involve levels of activities and intervention. Another intervention involves the provision of adequate prevention and treatment of things like depression and drug abuse. The method has worked on reducing the rates of suicide. This method is effective especially if a psychologist is involved. It does not have a limitation (Stride et al., 2008). Divorce is another problem which is nowadays affecting many couples. Conflicts among the partners can lead to divorce. A partner may discover that they married the wrong spouse leading to divorce. The couple can seek advice from religious leaders on how to live together in peace and happily. They can also call a third party to listen to their differences and help them solve them. The family members are in close contact with these partners and they are in a better position to know how the couple lives. Therefore, they are in a better position to know their problems and help them solve them. Divorce leaves the partners heartbroken and they may decide never to be in marriage again (Weitzman et al., 1985). Children are mostly affected emotionally and they may also suffer financially after the divorce compared to when the parents are living together. Both parents should provide the children with financial support and all other needs. The community members should also ensure that children receive proper care. Children are equally affected by the divorce since they lack parental care. The children are normally divided equally between the parents. The court is in charge of the ruling process. If the children are below 18 they cannot be allowed to choose whom to stay with (Weitzman et al., 1985).
A legal action should be taken against parents who mistreat their children after separation. Most of the married couples mostly divorce if they married while under the age of 18. They don’t complete 15 years in marriages and the highest percentage involved in divorce is from that group. Women are in most cases the first to seek divorce. Mostly, states with high percentage of Muslims are the ones affected by divorce since Muslims allow divorce. Those employed are the ones mostly involved in divorce. They can afford the charges related to divorce and both partners can sustain themselves. Those legally married are the ones who ask for divorce since it is a legal way of parting (Krause et al., 2008). The intervention towards divorce includes looking one’s best in terms of appearance since that can be one of the contributing factors towards divorce. For example, if it is the lady, she may have a lot of weight and there is need to lose weight. It is also important to clean up all the old hurts through apologizing and come to a mutual agreement (Beeble et al., 2009). They couple should find the origin of the conflicts leading to divorce. It is important for people to be very keen while choosing marriage partners to avoid future conflicts in their marriage life; not forgetting to remain faithful to each other. The above means for preventing divorce are effective and they help in solving the problem. The disadvantage with the interventions only comes in if the couples do not comply with them (Beeble et al., 2009).
After the suicidal individuals and the divorcing couples undergo counseling, some may survive being victims of such problems. They start viewing the issue in a more positive manner and withdraw from the decisions. Psychologists are very good when it comes to helping the victims to go through the hardships (Weitzman et al., 1985).
Beeble, M. L., Bybee, D., Sullivan, C. M., & Adams, A. E. (2009). Main, mediating, and moderating effects of social support on the well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence across 2 years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 718-729.
Krause, E. D., Kaltman, S., Goodman, L. A., & Dutton, M. A. (2008). Avoidant coping and PTSD symptoms related to domestic violence exposure: A longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(1), 83-90.
Stride, S., Geffner, R., & Lincoln, A. (2008). The physiological and traumatic effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence.Journal of Emotional Abuse, 8(1-2), 83-101.
Trotter, J. L., & Allen, N. E. (2009). The good, the bad, and the ugly: Domestic violence survivors’ experiences with their informal social networks. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43(3-4), 221-231.
Weitzman, L. J. (1985). The divorce revolution: The unexpected social and economic consequences for women and children in America.