Journal Question 1: Explore the interconnection between individualised service delivery
and case management. What are the essential characteristics of case management?
Journal Question 2: Assume you are a case manager completing an assessment in
collaboration with your client/s.
Identify the key elements of the intake, assessment and planning processes? Specify the
dilemmas these stages of case management have for the case manager?
Journal Question 3: What are the essential aspects to implementing and monitoring a case
Specify the dilemmas these stages of case management have for the case manager?
Question 4: Assume you are on the Board of Management of a human service organisation
and the management team are implementing case management as the service delivery
model. What are the essential factors that the management team need to consider when
making decisions about the introduction and development of case management as a service
Individualized Service Delivery
This is the first meeting with clients that present case managers the opportunity to collect
information to tackle their needs while encouraging engagement as well as retention of the
service process. This is the stage used to establish whether or not a client needs have been met.
Nonetheless, at this time, it may be hard for the case managers to adequately determine the
suitable strategy to fulfill client’s needs and examine their readiness to participate in case
management (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). This process comes with ethical dilemmas
as case managers may choose an inappropriate approach.
Assessment is the first step of developing clients’ needs. In addition, it is an essential
phase of case management (Chappell, 2012). It involves collecting all needs of the clients to
develop the case. This may require collecting and analysis of clients’ information. Moreover,
assessment can be carried out with no direct contact with clients, rather gathering useful
historical data to help understand a client’s needs. As a result of the complex nature of the
assessment phase, case managers are required to be flexible so as to not only identify but also
address developments as they emerge while reviewing approaches and objectives as needed
(Calgary Homeless Foundation 2012). Much as partnership standards present specific areas to
be covered in eligibility assessment, ethical dilemmas emerge because there are no requirements
for separate expectations of clients besides eligibility assessment.
Planning process entails concentrating on structural components of case management like
the occurrence and details of the problem, identifying measurable objectives and required
services to address particular needs. Planning of the case is individualized with detailed
documents looking at various elements of clients’ wellbeing in accordance with useful, factual
data (Gursansky, Kennedy & Camilleri, 2012). However, impartiality and objectivity are more
and more essential aspects that present ethical issues to the case manager. For instance, a case
manager working with institutions that offer services may be required to include such services in
their case management recommendations, particularly when services are not suitable for
During implementation, case managers execute the case management plan and arrange
the identified services. Moreover, it encompasses direct service delivery or refers to other
agencies. Nonetheless, all the parties are required to understand their duties (Calgary Homeless
Foundation, 2011). Case managers may face dilemmas during this phase especially in terms of
introducing actions, a period clients start to disengage from the process. Other dilemmas include
complex clients’ needs, hence calls for collaboration with an agency with lead case management
Moreover, case managers are coupled with various dilemmas during implementation when
they are required to engage with clients. At this moment, there is the likelihood for the caregiver
to compel the client as opposed to invoking a range of engagement approaches to establishing
the strong basis of a remedial relationship with the consumer (Gursansky, Kennedy & Camilleri,
2012). Another dilemma stems from the act of trying to superimpose professional will on clients.
This creates bitterness and creates disempowerment. The client gets an impression probably their
judgment is defective and their penchants and dreams hardly matter.
Monitoring and Review
Monitoring is a continuous process to assess the effectiveness of implementation
(Gursansky, Kennedy & Camilleri, 2012). In this phase, case managers face dilemmas that
involve hindrances associated with implementing the case management plan changing needs of
clients, which requires modifying strategies and goals.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012. Information Paper – A Statistical definition of
homelessness, 4922.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Commonwealth of Australia,
Calgary Homeless Foundation 2011.Standards of practice: case management for ending
homelessness, Accreditation process & standards manual, Canadian Accreditation
Council of Human Services, Alberta.
Calgary Homeless Foundation 2012.