Marking Criteria and Standards

Weighting: 55% 

Word count: 1500

Due Date: Week 10Monday 28 April 2014 by 1700hrs

Submission details: Students are required to submit an electronic copy only. Your essay must be submitted in .doc, docx. or.rtf – Do not submit in pdf versions for this assessment. This assessment is marked online no paper copy will be accepted. Marks, comments and the marking criteria will be released online.

Marking Criteria and Standards:  See pp. 19-21

Aim of Assessment

The aim of this assessment is to provide students with an opportunity to (1) gain a deeper understanding of age appropriate nursing care for a patient receiving palliation, their family and carers  and the nurse’s role surrounding death and dying; (2) further develop research and written communication skills.

Essay Question:

Australia’s population is becoming increasingly diverse. Therefore, meeting the palliative care needs in a range of settings poses many challenges. To demonstrate your understanding of a palliative care approach in a diverse environment, select a patient within one of the following lifespan categories:

  • Child
  • Young Adult
  • Older adult (65+)

Write an essay that:

 a)        Discusses the importance of providing age appropriate palliative care reflecting a palliative approach for a person and their family.

b)         Illustrate your understanding of nursing care using a palliative approach when applied to your chosen life span category.

•    Use current and relevant literature to adequately support your discussion throughout the essay.

Getting started with the literature

To commence this process the following reading may initiate further understanding in relation to age appropriate in nursing care for a patient receiving palliation and their family and carers.

Haley, C., & Daley, J. (2014). Palliation in chronic illness. In E. Chang & A. Johnson (Eds.),  Chronic illness and disability. Principles for nursing practice (2nd ed). (pp. 232-248).  Chatswood: Elsevier.

Monterosso, L., Kristjanson, L., Aoun, S., & Phillips, M. (2007). Support and palliative care needs of families of children with life-threatening illnesses in Western Australia: evidence to guide the development of a palliative care service. Palliative Medicine 21 (8), 689-696DOI: 10.1177/0269216307083032

Bhatnagar, S,. & Joshi, Saurabh,. (2011). Palliative care in young adults: an issue which needs higher and better awareness. Indian Journal of Palliative Care. 13 (3). 173-174   doi:10.4103/0973-1075.92332

Brererton, L., Gardiner, C., Gott, M., Ingleton, C., Barnes, S., & Carroll, C. (2011). The hospital     environment for end of life care of older adults and their families: an integrative review.     Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(5), 981-993.

Student’s written response that exceeds more than 10% of word limit will not be assessed following that point in the response.

iNote: Resubmission of assessment items will not normally be considered.

  • Essay exemplars are available on the vUWS site.
  • There are a number of textbooks and resources available through the UWS Library that may assist you. Please refer to the unit’s vUWS site for specific unit resources.

Marking Criteria and Standards: Assessment 3 – Essay

CriteriaMarkHigh Distinction 5 – 4.5    Distinction 4  Credit 3.5Pass 3 – 2.5Fail ≤2
  Introduction  /5  Introduction is exceptional, well- constructed and provides a clear thesis statement which clearly outlines the main points for discussion      Introduction provides very good or superior and clear thesis statement which lists the main points for discussion.        The introduction provides a good thesis statement which is mostly clear and lists the main points for discussion and reflection.    The Introduction adequately lists the main points for discussion and reflection. The introduction may not be clear or well constructed.      Poor or inappropriate introduction with a thesis statement that is unclear or absent, and has inadequate or absent outline of main points for discussion..   The issues to be addressed in the body of the work may be absent or poorly addressed.
CriteriaMarkHigh Distinction 15 – 13  Distinction 12.5 – 11.5Credit 11- 10  Pass 9.5 – 7.5Fail 7
  Discusses the importance of providing age appropriate palliative care reflecting a palliative approach for a person and their family receiving palliation.    /15  Discussion conveys consistent evidence of synthesis in understanding the importance of age appropriate nursing care for a person and their family receiving palliation.    Discussion conveys consistent evidence of critical analysis in understanding the importance of age appropriate nursing care for a person and their family receiving palliation.    Discussion conveys a degree of analysis in understanding the importance of age appropriate nursing care for a person and their family receiving palliation.    Discussion conveys minimal evidence of understanding of the importance of age appropriate nursing care for a person and their family receiving palliation    Discussion fails to show adequate understanding of the importance of age appropriate nursing care for a person and their family receiving palliation  
CriteriaMarkHigh Distinction 20 – 17Distinction 16.5 – 15Credit 14.5 – 13Pass     12.5 – 10Fail ≤ 9.5
  Illustrate your understanding of how the nurse supports the needs of a person receiving palliation, in your chosen lifespan category group reflecting a palliative approach.  /20  Essay conveys consistent evidence of synthesis being applied to how the nurse would support the needs of a person receiving palliation, in your chosen lifespan category reflecting a palliative approach.   Essay is expertly supported by current academic research, with superior grasp of current knowledge related to topic evidenced.  Essay conveys consistent evidence of critical analysis being applied to how the nurse would support the needs of a person receiving palliation, your chosen lifespan category reflecting a palliative approach.   Essay is well supported by current academic research, with very good understanding of current knowledge related to topic evidenced.  Essay conveys a degree of analysis on how the nurse would support the needs of a person receiving palliation, in your chosen lifespan category reflecting a palliative approach. Essay is reasonably substantiation from current academic research, with reasonable understanding of current knowledge related to topic evidenced.  Essay conveys minimal understanding of how the nurse would support the needs of a person receiving palliation, in your chosen lifespan category reflecting a palliative approach. Essay has minimal support from current academic research, with limited understanding of current knowledge related to topic evidenced.  Essay fails to adequately convey how the nurse supports the needs of a person receiving palliation, in your chosen lifespan category reflecting a palliative approach.   Poor substantiation from current academic research. Largely descriptive, little or no understanding of current knowledge related to topic evidenced.
CriteriaMarkHigh Distinction 4.5 – 5    Distinction 4  Credit 3.5Pass  2.5 – 3Fail ≤2
  Conclusion  /5  Provides an exceptional, clear, concise, well organized conclusion which expertly and succinctly summarizes all the main points raised in the discussion paper and draws these together in an outstanding manner.  Provides a very good, clear, concise, organized conclusion, which succinctly summarizes all the main points raised in the discussion paper and draws these together in a very good manner.          Provides a good, clear, concise, organized conclusion, which summarizes most of the main points raised in the discussion paper and draws these together in a good manner.    Provides an adequate conclusion but may not contain a clear summary of most of the main points raised in the paper. Provides a satisfactory concluding sentence.      The conclusion is unclear or absent. The conclusion fails to satisfy the minimum requirements for a conclusion of an essay/discussion paper. Inadequate provision of essential information such as a summary of main points raised in the discussion paper and a concluding sentence.  
Criteria Technical SkillsMarkHigh Distinction 10 – 8.5Distinction 8 – 7.5Credit 7 – 6.5Pass 6 – 5Fail ≤4.5
  Uses correct grammar, spelling and punctuation   Correctly applies conventions of in-text citation for specified referencing style. Includes a complete reference list correctly formatted according to specified referencing style    /10  Your essay contains no errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. You apply all conventions of APA correctly, use direct quotation sparingly and always paraphrase effectively. You use the correct bibliographical format for all sources and sequence them alphabetically.  Your essay contains one or two minor errors in grammar, spelling and/or punctuation, but these do not interfere with meaning. You apply all conventions of APA correctly, use direct quotation sparingly and paraphrase effectively in most cases. You use the correct bibliographical format for all but one or two sources and sequence them alphabetically.  You have eliminated most errors in grammar, spelling and/or punctuation and the remaining errors do not interfere with meaning. You apply most conventions of APA correctly; you use direct quotation sparingly but may paraphrase inconsistently. You use the correct bibliographical format for most sources and sequence them alphabetically.  You have eliminated most errors in grammar, spelling and/or punctuation; however some of the remaining errors interfere with meaning.   You do not use APA or you do not apply some conventions correctly; you rely too much on direct quotation and/or paraphrase inconsistently Your reference list is not formatted in APA or you do not use the correct bibliographical format for some sources; you may not sequence your sources alphabetically.  Your essay contains many errors in grammar, spelling and/or punctuation that frequently interfere with meaning.  You do not follow any conventions of APA correctly; you may rely too much on direct quotation and/or paraphrase poorly.  Your essay has no reference list.  

Comment: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Total:                   / 55

Date: …………………………….                        Lecturers Signature ………………………………………..

Palliative Care Nursing In Diverse Environment

 

Palliative Care Nursing In Diverse Environment

Introduction

            Increasingly, the population in Australia is becoming diverse. Hence, satisfying palliative care needs in diverse settings becomes difficult. In the year 2006, Australia’s population reached twenty million with thirteen percent of these being people aged sixty five years and above. Irrespective of cultural backgrounds, women have longer lives compared to men. Hence, the women’s proportion increases notably with age. In addition, people aged more than sixty five years are culturally diverse where only 35% are born overseas and only 39% are from English-speaking nations. A majority of the elderly people reside in private dwellings with their family members or alone. Only six percent live in guest houses, supported accommodation, or residential elderly care facilities (Mok, & Chiu 2004).

            The elderly have a higher likelihood of having complex needs that need partnerships between the providers in various settings. The interface that exists between palliative and geriatric care disciplines is extremely crucial. With age, the diseases that bring about death in people are very common. While cardiovascular disease in the major cause of death in people aged more than 85 years, cancer is the principal death cause in the elderly between 65 and 84 years. One of the impacts of the ageing population is a reduced availability of the young care givers. A majority of the elderly’s informal care support is usually offered by their elderly spouse. With increased migration and family’s changing demographics, the chance for the informal care being offered by the extended family members is greatly diminished. Many of the elderly people experience issues to do with under-treatment and under-assessment including pain under-assessment, inadequate information for decision making, home care lack, inaccessibility to specialist services, and absence of palliative care in residential aged care institutions (Elçigil 2012). This paper aims at establishing the need for offering age appropriate care among the elderly and how the nurse supports the elderly people’s care as far as palliative care is concerned.

Importance of providing age appropriate palliative care reflecting a palliative approach for a person and their family

            According to community surveys, pain is a vital symptom for approximately 1/3rd of the elderly people. This challenge makes a majority of the elderly to feel less positive regarding their health and it is normally bad enough to the extent that it limits activities in approximately 1/5th of the people. However, the pain is usually under-treated and under-reported. Pain is also a key feature in 55- 95% of the elderly suffering from advanced cancer in Australia and there is insufficient pain relief in approximately half of the patients. Unrelieved pain in cancer patients has a critical impact on the quality of life, which impacts on daily activities, sleep, social interaction, and enjoyment of life (Sheehan & Potter 2011).

            Heart failure affects over one person in ten elderly people more than seventy years and the 5-year mortality of eighty per cent is more critical compared to many cancers. This is acknowledged as an intermittent exacerbation of symptoms such as pain and breathlessness that causes huge distress. Regardless of the fact that there has been notable progress in addressing crises and symptoms, patients often have difficulties managing and understanding the complicated drug regimens needed. In addition, they have minimal formal knowledge regarding prognosis and diagnosis. Moreover, families note poor care coordination as well as difficulties creating relationships with only one professional as a result of multiple admissions in cases of crises (Bornen, 2011.

            Dementia affects four per cent of the people aged more than seventy years, and this increases to thirteen per cent when the elderly is more than eighty years. An elderly person lives for about eight years after diagnosis during which there is progressive deterioration in ability and awareness.  Some of the common symptoms include urinary incontinence, mental confusion, pain, constipation, low mood, and appetite loss. The emotional and physical burden on the family members is well known, similar to the grief of losing a loved one slowly (Georges et al 2002).

            The elderly usually suffer from multiple comorbid challenges. Normally, minor challenges are associated with huge psychological effects and the cumulative impact of these can be greater compared to any other sole disease. The elderly are highly vulnerable to adverse drug reactions as well as iatrogenic diseases. In addition, they suffer from additional challenges including economic hardship, social isolation, and mental impairment. More particularly, hearing, seeing, bowel and bladder control difficulties, dizziness, and mental confusion increase with age (Hanks et al 2011).

            There are also immense concerns about patient-centred care and communication. During the previous few decades, there have been consistent findings to the effect that cancer services never meet patients’ support, information, and communication needs. According to systematic reviews, there is solid evidence that accurate explanation is extremely vital to patients and many patients have the feeling that they receive inadequate explanation. In addition, they hold the notion that nurses and doctors presently have inadequate abilities in detecting patient needs. More salient issues include education and information, respect for preferences, coordination of care, physical comfort, emotional support, involving friends and family, and transitions and continuity in care. One of the key determinants of satisfaction in care is being involved in decision making and proper presentation of information to patients regarding their life-threatening diseases. These factors are extremely important for families (Hanks et al 2011).

.

            The elderly have preferences regarding their place of death and care. In Australia, more than 90% of the elderly aged more than 65 years live at home. Between 50 and 70 % of the people with serious illness say their end of life preference is home care. As death nears, some wish for care from inpatient hospice, elderly home care, hospital, or residential or nursing facility. A majority of the elderly of the elderly normally die in hospitals. Nonetheless, variations in the percentage of people that die at home indicate this is related to services’ delivery and organizations as opposed to people’s preferences (Barnard et al 2006).

            Therefore, there is a need to apply a holistic approach to palliative care that encompasses a wide array of areas including symptom and pain control, communication skills, spiritual support, psychological support, complementary therapy, services for families and caregivers, integration and coordination of care, professional palliative care teams, bereavement support, palliative day care, as well as involving users when designing services (Ross, et al 1996).

How the nurse supports the needs of a person receiving palliation the chosen lifespan category group reflecting a palliative approach

The gerontological nurse practitioner has got the educational and experimental background on how to provide support to the old dying patients and their families by using the palliative care. When these old patients are in hospital or being nursed at home the gerontological nurse practitioners can support and educate the staff on the provision of palliative care and the ways to control pain among these people. The nurses can be a resource to the elderly people in providing of psychological support to the families and the patients. They can use the palliative care model to decrease the length of period in which a person stays in an institution through informing the patients and their families about the option of using the hospice services in home setting which can serve as a liaison between either the hospital or the nursing home and the home hospice care services (Copp, 1994).                                                                                                            The nurse practitioners can also clarify their goals of end of life care with the patients and the families. They can help the families in selecting the medical treatments which meet their goals. They can also assist the families of the elderly with decisions on whether to withhold or to withdraw treatment which do not fulfill their goals.  The nurses can help the patients and their families through providing them with spiritual, psychosocial and emotional needs. The nurses are health care providers who are well known by the family members and the patients and therefore they are in a very unique position to provide the above services as well. The nurses can also offer bereavement counseling to the friends and families which are surviving (Kemper& Murtaugh, 1991).                                                                                                                                      Finally, the gerontological nurse practitioner are normally qualified therefore are in a position to conduct a research on how to improve the quality of care for the elderly people at the end of their lives. There have been very few researches related to the palliative care which have so far been conducted. The paucity of research in this field may be caused by the perceived ethical challenges while studying the terminal patients. However, there is need to conduct a study which focuses on cost effectiveness due to the current economic times. There has been study on cost effectiveness and the economic outcomes of the palliative care which was based on the oncology patients in the home setting. It was noticed that the nurse coordination of the palliative care was around 40% of costs which are normally associated with the oncology patients. More research related to the outcomes of palliative care would turn out effective.  There is need for the gerontological nurse practitioners to be very active in the hospice team and should initiate or participate in the researches associated with the results of older individuals who use the palliative care and the hospice services.

Conclusion

The populations are aging with very high numbers. These people are living with and even dying from chronic debilitating conditions such as the cardiovascular diseases and cancer. There is need to raise awareness of palliative care for the old people. There are numerous barriers which hinder the provision of high quality palliative care for the older people in the acute hospital settings. The palliative care is important to the elderly as it helps so much in their health. There is need for these people to have appropriate care support and treatment. This will help them live healthy life at their old age.

References    

Barnard, A., Hollingum, C., & Hartfiel, B. (2006). Going on a journey: understanding palliative care nursing. International journal of palliative nursing, 12(1), 6-12.

Bornen, T. (2011). Palliative Care Nursing. Current problems in cancer, 35(6), 351-356.

Copp, G. (1994). Palliative care nursing education: a review of research findings*. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(3), 552-557.

Elçigil, A. (2012). Palliative care nursing. Gulhane Medical Journal, 54(4), 329-334.

Froggatt, K. A. (2001). Palliative care and nursing homes: where next?. Palliative medicine, 15(1), 42-48.

Georges, J. J., Grypdonck, M., Casterle, D., & Dierckx, B. (2002). Being a palliative care nurse in an academic hospital: a qualitative study about nurses’ perceptions of palliative care nursing. Journal of clinical nursing, 11(6), 785-793.

Hanks, G., Cherny, N. I., Christakis, N. A., Fallon, M., Kassa, S., & Portenoy, R. K. (2011). Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. FAMILY MEDICINE, 43(2), 131.

Kemper, P., & Murtaugh, C. M. (1991). Lifetime use of nursing home care. New England Journal of Medicine, 324(9), 595-600.

Mok, E., & Chiu, P. C. (2004). Nurse–patient relationships in palliative care. Journal of advanced Nursing, 48(5), 475-483.

Ross, M. M., McDonald, B., & McGuinness, J. (1996). The palliative care quiz for nursing (PCQN): the development of an instrument to measure nurses’ knowledge of palliative care. Journal of advanced nursing, 23(1), 126-137.

Sheehan, C., & Potter, M. (2011). Palliative Care Nursing. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

 

           

 

Policy Priority issue

After completing Formulating a Health Care Policy Ungraded Worksheet #1, address all areas on the worksheet in the body of a scholarly paper. Include a minimum of five (5) classic or current references published within the past 5 years.

Policy

Shortage of the health care practitioners has been a problem affecting the provision of effective health care. The shortage of the health care providers has led to patients not receiving effective services which are expected. Moreover, the few health care providers who are available end up working overtime. There is need to adopt policies which will help in eliminating the problem. If doctorates practice as nurse practitioners, the problem would be eliminated. However, it will not be easy to keep up with the new demands.  Incrementalism would work best for such an approach to be a success (Gunn, 2013).                      

Public-health policy issue and its significance

            Amid concerns regarding the shortage of primary care providers, particularly in the light of 2014’s health reform coverage expansions, many hold the believe that revision of state laws that govern the scope of practice of nurse practitioners would be a strategic way of increasing primary care capacity. In Michigan, Massachusetts, Maryland, Indiana, Arkansas, and Arizona, the laws are not specific on the services that NPs can offer to patients. So as to promote effective practices of doctorates as NPs, policy makers should evaluate regulatory changes that offer NPs more opportunities and scope of practice (Short & McDonald, 2012).

Specific problem, background, new law or campaign

The society needs qualified nursing professionals who have the quality of leadership in interdisciplinary collaboration to figure the health care system and improve the outcomes of the nursing care. There has been an explosion of scientific knowledge which stresses on the need for strong preparation of the nursing professionals so that they are able to translate research into practice. They will provide a high level of care as well. There should be a new law recognizing NPs as primary care providers.

Review of thoughts

Context

There is a need for policy makers to evaluate a number of ways for expanding the opportunities for NPS in delivering primary care services, considering the documented shortage that is also projected to worsen. A reevaluation of state legislative reforms will also be very strategic in sourcing NPs from doctorates (Short & McDonald, 2012).
Goals/options

There is need to use the incrementalism approach to accomplish the policy of the doctorates practicing as nurse practitioners. This is a policy which is supposed to be informed to all people but not only the doctorates. Those who are in universities taking degrees and PhDs should know their next destination after they are through with their particular courses. The ministry of health and the ministry of finance should take their roles in implementing the policy. The doctorates who engage in the nursing practices are supposed to get payment which is equivalent what they were receiving while in their previous professionals.        
Evaluation of options

There is likelihood that the doctorate nurse practitioners will diminish the need and support of the PhD programs. These people go for the PhD programs with the desire of being doctorates but not health care practitioners. If they shift to being health care providers, the other people who are aiming at being doctorates may lose interest and chose to take other careers. Confusion is expected among the patients. The patients will not be in a position to differentiate between the doctor of nursing practice and the common nurses.  There will be two groups of people who will be physicians. Again, not all the doctorates will be willing to surrender their hard work to being just nurse practitioners (Johns & Freshwater, 2009). Studying doctorates consumes a vast amount of time and effort. It will be a big humiliation to the doctorates if they are to shift to being health care practitioners.
Recommended solutions

Apart from allowing doctorates to practice as NPs, public payer reforms may also be effective in solving the shortage of primary care workforce for individuals covered by Medicaid, Medicare, as well as other public programs. If the Medicaid managed care plans’ state regulation that covers a majority of the Medicaid enrollees will be a more politically feasible and immediate way of expanding efficient use of NPs in primary care.

Sources of the current issue’s status

            The National Institute for Health Care Reform keeps people informed and updated about the issue.

Government levels

            The state government would be involved more and it would be the most immediate target. This is founded on the fact that state laws differ greatly in the physician oversight level needed for nurse practitioners. Some states permit their nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice independently. On the same note, others limit the authority of NPs to prescribe medications, treat, and diagnose patients without supervision.

Significance to nursing

The doctorates will be equipped with more knowledge on the provision of health care services. They will be able to implement the science which is developing day by day in the field of health care provision. There are many changing demands for the complex health care environment where the highest level of scientific knowledge and practice expertise is required in order to ensure that there is quality patient outcome (Robinson, Walid & Barth, 2012).   Some of the ways in which the doctorates will be of benefit if they become health care practitioners is that they will be in a position to address the quick expansion of knowledge underlying practice. They will also be able to attend to the increased complexity of the patients care, quality of care which the patients need, patient safety, and the increased shortage of the nursing personnel. In addition, the doctorates will be able to solve the problem of shortage of the doctorally prepared nursing faculty.           

The doctorate will be of much benefit in the health care provision. They will combat the problem of shortage of health care practitioners as well as improve the quality of services provided to the patients (Kabene, 2011).  These doctorates will also have acquired knowledge in other disciplines where they will have the chance to fully participate in decision making with the other professional colleagues.

In the process of performing as health care practitioners, the doctorates will be interacting with the other nursing practitioners. Therefore, the more they work together, the more the nursing practitioners with lower levels of education will get more knowledge on quality health care provision. With their clinical expertise, they will prepare the lower-level heath care providers for professional leadership. The doctorates will implement the evidence -based practices with the aim of optimizing the health care outcomes and reducing disparities. They will also practice strategic management to expand the value of the nursing interventions and health system outcomes (Robinson, Walid & Barth, 2012).  With the advanced knowledge, they will be in a position to develop the transdisciplinary ventures in order to create innovative health care delivery models. Integrating technology skills in nursing practice to improve quality and accessibility of care will be a success in the nursing practice (Short & McDonald, 2012).

Conclusion

In conclusion, the policy of doctorates becoming nurse practitioners can be an effective policy. The advanced nursing practices will be implemented leading to provision of more quality services to the patients. They will carry also out research in the health care sector. However, there is need to use incrementalism for the policy to be effective. It is not easy to just adopt such a policy at once. Other relevant options will be evaluated so as to ensure that the best alternative is chosen. 

References

Gunn, J. (2013). Minnesota’s rural health workforce shortages. Minnesota Medicine, 96(12), 41-45.

Johns, C., & Freshwater, D. (Eds.). (2009). Transforming nursing through reflective practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Kabene, S. M. (2011). Human resources in healthcare, health informatics and healthcare systems. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.

Robinson, J. S., Walid, M. S., & Barth, A. C. M. (2012). Toward healthcare resource stewardship. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Short, S. D., & McDonald, F. (2012). Health workforce governance: Improved access, good regulatory practice, safer patients. Farnham Surrey, England: Ashgate Pub.

Palliative care nursing in diverse environment

To demonstrate your understanding of palliative care nursing in diverse environment (across a range of setting) in Older adult (65+)

Essay Question:Australia’s population is becoming increasingly diverse. Therefore, meeting the palliative care needs in a range of settings poses many challenges. To demonstrate your understanding of a palliative care approach in a diverse environment, select a patient from one of the following lifespan categories:

•Children

•Adult

Elder Adult 65+

Write an essay that:Question A) Discusses the importance of providing age appropriate care reflecting a palliative approach for a person and their family.

QUESTION B) Illustrate your understanding of nursing care using a palliative approach when applied to your chosen life span category.

• Use current and relevant literature to adequately support your discussion throughout the essay.Getting started with the literatureTo commence this process the following reading may initiate further understanding in relation to age appropriate in nursing care for a patient receiving palliation and their family and carers.

Haley, C., & Daley, J. (2014). Palliation in chronic illness. In E. Chang & A. Johnson (Eds.), Chronic illness and disability. Principles for nursing practice (2nd ed.). (pp. 232-248). Chatswood: Elsevier.

Brererton, L., Gardiner, C., Gott, M., Ingleton, C., Barnes, S., & Carroll, C. (2011). The hospital environment for end of life care of older adults and their families: an integrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(5), 981-993.

EXPLAIN MORE HOW TO WRITE ESSAY

( introduction 150 words)

1)First body paragraph (300 words) :why it is important to design palliative care appropriate for your chosen age group (Older adult (65+). Why it is important to provide age important care for a palliative patient and their family, why generally ,it is important to take age into account when planning care? Why is a general care plan not appropriate across all of age group ? for example it can be population profile or increasing health care costs, …..

Palliative care is an approach, which helps to improve the quality life of the patients as well as to their families who are facing the problems like life-threatening, throughout the prevention and relief of suffering by different means of primary identification, unimpeachable assessment and by pain management and other problems like spirituals, physicals and psychosocial.

2)Second paragraph (300 words)one brad concept of providing palliative care example effective communication.

3)Third body paragraph (300 words):another broad concept of providing palliative care examplePerson centered care ( including cultural competency , empathy. etc. How each one contributes to effective palliative care.

4) )Fourth paragraph (300 words) another broad concept of providing palliative care example multidisciplinary teams to meet many and complex needs of patients. Skills needed for collaboration in multidisciplinary teams.

5) Conclusion (150 words).

Your essay contains no errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. You apply all conventions of APA correctly, use direct quotation sparingly and always paraphrase effectively.

You use the correct bibliographical format for all sources and sequence them alphabetically.

Student Number: _____________ Student Name:


Marking Criteria and Standards: Assessment 3 – Essay

Criteria Mark
High
Distinction 5 –
4.5

Distinction 4 Credit 3.5 Pass 3 – 2.5 Fail ≤2

Introduction /5

Introduction is
exceptional,
well-
constructed and
provides a clear
thesis
statement
which clearly
outlines the
main points for
discussion

Introduction
provides very
good or
superior and
clear thesis
statement
which lists the
main points for
discussion.
The
introduction
provides a
good thesis
statement
which is mostly
clear and lists
the main points
for discussion
and reflection.
The
Introduction
adequately lists
the main points
for discussion
and reflection.
The
introduction
may not be
clear or well
constructed.
Poor or
inappropriate
introduction
with a thesis
statement that
is unclear or
absent, and
has inadequate
or absent
outline of main
points for
discussion..
The issues to
be addressed
in the body of
the work may
be absent or
poorly
addressed.

Criteria Mark
High
Distinction 15-
13

Distinction
12.5 – 11.5 Credit 11- 10 Pass 9.5 – 7.5 Fail ≤7

Illustrates
understanding
of the
importance of
providing age
appropriate
palliative care
reflecting a
palliative
approach for a
person and
their family
receiving
palliation.
/15
Discussion
conveys
consistent
evidence of
synthesis in
illustrating
understanding
of age
appropriate
nursing care for
a person and
their family
receiving
palliation.

Discussion
conveys
consistent
evidence of
critical analysis
in illustrating
understanding
of age
appropriate
nursing care for
a person and
their family
receiving
palliation.

Discussion
conveys a
degree of
analysis in
illustrating
understanding
of age
appropriate
nursing care for
a person and
their family
receiving
palliation.

Discussion
conveys
minimal
evidence of
understanding
of age
appropriate
nursing care for
a person and
their family
receiving
palliation

Discussion fails
to adequately
illustrate an
understanding
of age
appropriate
nursing care for
a person and
their family
receiving
palliation

©School of Nursing and Midwifery Page 19 of 29 University of Western Sydney
Student Number: _____________ Student Name:


Criteria Mark
High
Distinction
20 – 17

Distinction 16.5

  • 15

Credit 14.5 –
13 Pass 12.5 – 10 Fail ≤ 9.5

Discuss how
the nurse
supports the
needs of a
person
receiving
palliation, in

/20 Discussion
conveys
consistent
evidence of
synthesis
being applied
to how the

Discussion
conveys
consistent
evidence of
critical analysis
being applied to
how the nurse

Discussion
conveys a
degree of
analysis on how
the nurse would
support the
needs of a

Discussion
conveys
minimal
understanding
of how the
nurse would
support the

Discussion fails to
adequately convey
how the nurse
supports the
needs of a person
receiving
palliation, in your

your chosen
lifespan
category
group
reflecting a
palliative
approach.

nurse would
support the
needs of a
person
receiving
palliation, in
your chosen
lifespan
category
reflecting a
palliative
approach.
Discussion is
expertly
supported by
current
academic
research, with
superior grasp
of current
knowledge
related to
topic
evidenced.

would support
the needs of a
person receiving
palliation, your
chosen lifespan
category
reflecting a
palliative
approach.
Discussion is
well supported
by current
academic
research, with
very good
understanding
of current
knowledge
related to topic
evidenced.

person
receiving
palliation, in
your chosen
lifespan
category
reflecting a
palliative
approach.
Discussion is
reasonably
substantiation
from current
academic
research, with
reasonable
understanding
of current
knowledge
related to topic
evidenced.

needs of a
person
receiving
palliation, in
your chosen
lifespan
category
reflecting a
palliative
approach.
Discussion has
minimal support
from current
academic
research, with
limited
understanding
of current
knowledge
related to topic
evidenced.

chosen lifespan
category reflecting
a palliative
approach.
Poor
substantiation
from current
academic
research. Largely
descriptive, little or
no understanding
of current
knowledge related
to topic evidenced.

Criteria Mark
High
Distinction
4.5 – 5

Distinction 4 Credit 3.5 Pass 2.5 – 3 Fail ≤2

Conclusion /5

Provides an
exceptional,
clear, concise,
well organized
conclusion
which expertly
and succinctly
summarises
all the main
points raised
in the
discussion
paper and
draws these
together in an
outstanding
manner.

Provides a very
good, clear,
concise,
organized
conclusion,
which succinctly
summarises all
the main points
raised in the
discussion
paper and
draws these
together in a
very good
manner.

Provides a
good, clear,
concise,
organized
conclusion,
which
summarises
most of the
main points
raised in the
discussion
paper and
draws these
together in a
good manner.

Provides an
adequate
conclusion but
may not contain
a clear
summary of
most of the
main points
raised in the
paper.
Provides a
satisfactory
concluding
sentence.

The conclusion is
unclear or absent.
The conclusion
fails to satisfy the
minimum
requirements for a
conclusion of an
essay/discussion
paper.
Inadequate
provision of
essential
information such
as a summary of
main points raised
in the discussion
paper and a
concluding
sentence.

©School of Nursing and Midwifery Page 20 of 29 University of Western Sydney
Student Number: _____________ Student Name:


Criteria
Technical
Skills

Mark
High
Distinction 10 –
8.5

Distinction 8 –
7.5 Credit 7 – 6.5 Pass 6-5 Fail ≤4.5

Uses correct
grammar,
spelling and
punctuation

/10 Your essay
contains no
errors in
grammar,
spelling and
punctuation.

Your essay
contains one or
two minor errors
in grammar,
spelling and/or
punctuation, but
You have
eliminated most
errors in
grammar,
spelling and/or
punctuation and
You have
eliminated most
errors in
grammar,
spelling and/or
punctuation;

Your essay
contains many
errors in
grammar,
spelling and/or
punctuation

Correctly
applies
conventions of
in- text
citation for
specified
referencing
style. Includes
a complete
reference list
correctly
formatted
according to
specified
referencing
style

You apply all
conventions of
APA correctly,
use direct
quotation
sparingly and
always
paraphrase
effectively.
You use the
correct
bibliographical
format for all
sources and
sequence them
alphabetically.

these do not
interfere with
meaning. You
apply all
conventions of
APA correctly,
use direct
quotation
sparingly and
paraphrase
effectively in
most cases.
You use the
correct
bibliographical
format for all but
one or two
sources and
sequence them
alphabetically.

the remaining
errors do not
interfere with
meaning. You
apply most
conventions of
APA correctly;
you use direct
quotation
sparingly but
may paraphrase
inconsistently.
You use the
correct
bibliographical
format for most
sources and
sequence them
alphabetically.

however some
of the remaining
errors interfere
with meaning.
You do not use
APA or you do
not apply some
conventions
correctly; you
rely too much
on direct
quotation
and/or
paraphrase
inconsistently
Your reference
list is not
formatted in
APA or you do
not use the
correct
bibliographical
format for some
sources; you
may not
sequence your
sources
alphabetically.

that frequently
interfere with
meaning. You
do not follow
any
conventions of
APA correctly;
you may rely
too much on
direct
quotation
and/or
paraphrase
poorly.
Your essay
has no
reference list.

Comment:



Total: / 55
Date: ……………………………. Lecturers Signature ………………………………………..
©School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Western Sydney

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