Liver Disease (HEPATIC DISEASE)
Reflect on alterations associated with the disorder you selected. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.
Think about the types of drugs that would be used to treat alterations associated with the disorder you selected.
Reflect on how patient factors, such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified. Then, consider how these factors might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as measures you might take to help reduce any negative side effects.
Locate an agency that provides patient education on your selected disorder and review the available materials and curriculum. Consider how you might be able to use those materials to educate a patient on the disorder, treatment options, management, and self-care.
Develop a 2 pages paper that addresses the following:
Describe the disorder you selected, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.
Describe the types of drugs that would be prescribed to treat alterations associated with the disorder.
Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified and the effects of prescribed drugs. Then, describe measures you might take to help reduce any negative side effects.
Explain how you would use materials from a supporting agency to educate patients on the disorder, treatment options, management, and self-care
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby
Poole Arcangelo, V., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
This is also referred to as liver disease and is a type of disease or damage to the liver. Liver dysfunction symptoms include physical signs as well as a number of symptoms that are related to coagulopathies, digestive problems, immune disorder, blood sugar problems, metabolism problems, and abnormal fats absorption. Some of the diseases include hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, hepatic steatosis, cirrhosis, and primary biliary cirrhosis among others (Poole Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).
Pathophysiology of alterations
In patients with liver disease, there are extensive changes in the pathways that contribute to homeostasis. The homeostatic alterations concern the anti- and pro-homeostatic pathways. The patients also have homeostasis-related bleeding tendency. Clinical bleeding episodes are related ulcers or ruptured varices, and portal hypotension or vascular abnormalities. There might be hepatic artery or portal vein thrombosis as a result of hypercoagulation (Poole Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).
Amino acid metabolism takes place in the liver through transamination and oxidative deamination. Oxidative deamination results to ammonia production and, therefore, impairment of the function leads to BUN (blood urea nitrogen level) diminution and increased levels of circulating ammonia. Increased serum ammonia amounts are very toxic to the brain and results to hepatic coma. The liver also converts glucose into glycogen. However, if there is liver disease, there are impairments that lead to liver disease hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. With food ingestion, there is hyperglycemia since hepatocytes are unable to store glycogen and with reduced dietary intake, the hepatocytes are unable to mobilize glucose from glycogen and the result is hypoglycemia. This is referred to as hepatic diabetes.
Drugs for the alterations
Acetaminophen is commonly utilized as an antipyretic and analgesic. The drug is safe if taken in therapeutic doses and is an effective pain relief agent. NSAIDS and aspirin are used widely for their antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Opioids are used for pain and are narcotic analgesics. They include buprnorphine, alfentanil, fentanyl, codeine, morphine, meperidine, and tramadol among others (Poole Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).
Age- alterations’ Pathophysiology and drugs’ effects
Advancing age is usually associated with progressive reduction in liver blood flow and liver volume. As a result, ageing is associated with first-pass metabolism reduction. Consequently, bioavailability of drugs that undergo extensive first-pass metabolism is increased significantly. Fight-mass activation can reduce or slow with age. There is moderate enzymatic functions and hepatic structure alterations with ageing. Mono-oxygenase activities are well maintained even in elderly patients. Factors like cigarette smoking never induce drug metabolism in the elderly as is the case with younger people (Huether & McCance, 2012). Age-linked renal function reduction potentially affects the liver’s drug metabolism.
Reducing negative side effects
It is extremely important that there is a better comprehension of the ageing effects on the therapeutic agents’ clinical pharmacology as this enhances prescribing quality. Hepatic changes need to be considered in relation to other pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly. The dose of drugs that undergo the first phase metabolism should be reduced by forty percent. There is also a need to consider if a drug is prodrug and if it has toxic or active metabolites when choosing a starting dose (Huether & McCance, 2012).
Using a supporting agency’s materials
Materials from a supporting agency can be used differently when educating patients on treatment options, the disorder, self-care, and management. First, the health care provider should read and comprehend the information therein before passing it to the patients. After this, patients can be referred to the agency’s website for updates on recent information and discoveries, as well as discussion forums.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Poole Arcangelo, V., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.