Human diversity

Case Study: Tracey
Tracey is a twenty-one-year-old student diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Tracey
can have difficulties with transitions and requires that her routine is predictable.
Tracey is a friendly young lady, but is frequently impulsive and this can result in grabbing
and sometimes even pushing another peer.
Tracey’s dream is to attend college and work in an office like her father does. She can read
at about a second grade level. Tracey needs reminders to choose appropriate clothing and
change her clothes on a regular basis. She is able to complete her daily living skills
relatively independently and follows directions when they are paired with pictures to help
her understand the steps in completing more complicated tasks. She would like to share an
apartment with a school friend when she graduates.
For each of the following, include potential supports her family may provide. Identify some
of the concerns or challenges that might be expressed by community members. Identify the
role of educators in assisting Tracey to meet her goals.

  1. Your paper should include a description of goals in the following areas:
    Independent Living
  2. Describe which of the supports she will need on a job and explain why:
    Clustered placement
    Individual Placement
    Sheltered Employment
  3. Describe the Residential Alternative that you are recommending for her (from those
    listed below) and why:
    Apartment Living
    Foster Home
    Group Home
    4.Define the problem behaviors; identify the function of the behavior(s); describe at least
    one intervention for the display of the problem behavior(s); identify one alternative
    behavior that Tracey will learn to replace the need to engage in the problem behavior;
    describe how you will collect behavioral data to determine the effectiveness of the
    Successful papers will be those that incorporate information from your readings with ideas
    of how those concepts can be applied to the case study. Each section should be about one
    page (4 pages total). Your Assignment should be double spaced, using 12 pt. Times New
    Roman font using APA format. Please use at least two sources and include citations in the
    body of the paper as appropriate.


Case Study: Tracey (Exceptional Children)


Human diversity has taken a rising toll, with the need to appreciate and embrace it
proving beneficial socially, economically, and politically. People with disabilities have for a long
time been looked down on and considered invalids with no way of contributing to societal
growth. Autism Spectrum Disorder is a combination of developmental brain disorders with wide
range of symptoms and levels of impairment. This disorder is attributed to genetic and
environmental reasons. Persons with this disorder are socially impaired, have communication
problems, and repetitive behaviors (Heward, 2013). Currently “normal” people are changing
their perception about people with developmental disabilities. People with developmental
disabilities are being given education and employment opportunities like other people which is
considerably improving the general citizen lifestyle though incorporation of diversity.


Tracey is like any other child with a dream to attend college and be someone of
substance. Autism Spectrum Disorder has led to her requiring special needs and attention to
achieve her dream. Her goals and objective in life with differ relatively from those of a normal
child or grown up to ensure that they incorporate her disability.
Educational goals should focus on improving her reading ability, socialization skills,
communication skills, and adaptation to transitions (Heward, 2013). It is evident that Tracey has
difficulties in these sectors and her teachers should aim at enhancing her development. Tracey is
twenty-one years old and her reading ability is at a second grade level. The fact that she can read
proves that it is not the problem but the rate at which she learns how to do so is. Concerned
persons should put all necessary effort in improving her reading abilities considerably. Her

impulsive behavior shows social impairment that should be addressed. Concerned people should
aim at instilling positive behavior and eliminating negative behavior like grabbing and pushing
other people. This will enable her distinguish right from wrong and practice positive behavior
only. Her communication skills should be enhanced. College should aim at proving pictures in
all required departments and resources to enable Tracey adapt to school curriculum (Heward,
Employment sector should aim at training and supporting Tracey in her field of expertise.
This will require providing necessary resources and equipments to ensure she is comfortable and
productive at work place.
Independent living with her friend will require her to possess cooking skills, able to do
her shopping, take care of health, pay her bills, and organize activities. Therefore this will
require that she learns how to do these routine activities and has a schedule that avoids
transitions to enable her adapt.

Employment supports

Models of employment supports include supported employment, day habilitation
employment, and sheltered workshops employment. Supported employment is a category of
employment options that realize the capacity in people with developmental disabilities while
accepting their need for continual support. They include customized placement, individual
placement, clustered placement, mobile work crew, and entrepreneurial supports (Dew & Alan,
Individual placement model requires a job coach to provide intensive training and support
to individuals. There is high social integration of individuals and its implementation is with more
able and less resource intensive individuals. Its modifications allow for long term support.

Sheltered employment is designed to provide large, clustered-like employment
experience for people with developmental disorders. Its system comprises many people with
disabilities isolated from daily interactions and working on repetitive tasks. They lack functional
work tasks and employment training, minimal training attention, and insufficient staff and
expertise training therefore less desirable option for adults with developmental disabilities.
Cluster placement entails a job coach supporting a small group of adults with
developmental disabilities at a community location. People may be clustered at a single location
or dispersed throughout the employment place. There is restricted interaction hence this
placement is considered a private sector sheltered workshop.
Individual placement model is most suitable for Tracey since it caters for her transition
from school to employment. Its intensive job training and support will be necessary to enable
Tracey adapt into the job market and develop her working skills. The high degree of
individuality supported by this placement will cater for her special needs since she can be herself
without fear of being judged or looked on (Dew & Alan, 2007). This will ensure her growth and
development at her own pace. High level of social integration will be important in dealing with
her social difficulties ensuring that appropriate behaviors and mannerisms are developed. Its
provision for long-term support is also necessary since it will ensure that there is always
someone to direct her in the correct direction.

Residential alternative

Choice of housing and residential alternatives for Tracey will depend on the specific type
of supports and services that she may need depending on her abilities. Residential alternatives
include independent living, foster home, group-home living, group living, supported living,
farmstead communities, intermediate care facilities and supervised living. Choice of the housing

and residence will depend on financial considerations, interests and preferences, location, and
supports and services needed.
Supports and services requires considerations on whether Tracey can live alone, take care
of her personal hygiene needs, organize and pay her bills, do grocery shopping, cook, manage
her medication, and need for behavioral supports.
Location of her residence will depend on need for public transportation, nearness to
recreational areas, shopping and other community facilities. The need to be near workplace,
nearness of neighbors, availability of backyard, and nearness to family among others will also
influence the type of residential facility necessary for her.
Her personal and private interests and preferences are also necessary in determining the
best residential option. Considerations like need for a roommate, freedom and to prepare her own
meals among others are necessary. Financial considerations like sources of monthly income,
monthly expenses, and presence of special needs trust and how to use it are necessary in
determining type of residential home to choose (Heward, 2013).
I would recommend she considers choosing foster home living as an alternative besides
independent living. Foster home living provides a family-style living support with professional
teaching parents who often are a couple. Tracey maybe the only person with a disability living
there, or there maybe others with or without disabilities. It is clear that Tracey wants to live in an
environment that is not crowded since she prefers independent living with a friend. She is also
able to complete her routine skills alone. This kind of setting has a limited number of people
which she prefers (Heward, 2013). She also needs help in completing complicated tasks through
drawings. The couple would be very helpful with that and to ensure she changes her clothes

regularly. The couple can teach her how to care for herself better which would be a stepping
stone to enable her live in an apartment alone in future.
Problem behaviors

Autism Spectrum Disorder is associated with social impairment, communication
difficulties, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. People with this disorder do not follow usual
and typical patterns when developing their social and communication skills.
Social impairment is characterized by making little eye contact, little response to other
people in their environment, withdrawal, unusual response to anger, distress and affection
expressed by other people (Dew & Alan, 2007). There is also difficulty interpreting gestures,
facial expressions, and non-verbal communication and understanding other people’s point of
Communication difficulties comprise slow response to verbal attempts, to develop
gestures, delayed language development, repetition of certain phrases, odd and misplaced usage
of words, and communication through pictures.
Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors are either extreme and noticeable or mild and
discreet depending on an individual. Most people have persistent, intense preoccupation with a
particular object.
Tracey has problems with transitions and therefore prefers routine daily activities that are
predictable. She also has difficulties with social interactions shown by her frequent impulsive
behavior which to some extent depicts aggression. Her reading ability is at a second grade level
which depicts delayed learning ability.
Applied Behavior Analysis ABA, Floortime, Gluten Free, Casein Free Diet, occupational
therapy, Relationship Development Intervention, Sensory Integration Therapy, and Speech

Therapy are interventions used in treating autism spectrum disorder. Applied Behavior Analysis
is the best and necessary approach to use for Tracey. It encourages positive behavior and
discourages negative behavior. This will come in handy discouraging her impulsive behavior of
grabbing and pushing other peers (Dew & Alan, 2007). It will increase her motivation to learn,
monitor her behavior, and initiate communication with others. It therefore has a positive impact
on all other behaviors. Eventually her impulsive behavior of grabbing and pushing her peers will
be replaced with appropriate behavior.


The usual common phrase that disability is not inability is currently being displayed and
fought for in all sectors of life. Although society is a long way from accepting diversity, it has
taken measures that point to that direction. There are several other disorders that lead to special
needs and people need to be more understanding. Appreciating others as they are is a necessity
that every person worldwide should advocate through diversified education facilities and
employment opportunities among other sectors.



Dew, D.W., & Alan, G.W., (Eds.). (2007). Rehabilitation of individuals with autism spectrum
disorders (Institute on Rehabilitation Monograph No. 32). Washington, DC: The George
Washington University, Center for Rehabilitation Counseling Research and Education.
Heward, W. L. (2013). Exceptional Children; An Introduction to Special Education, 10th ed.
Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.

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