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HIV virus

a brief description of the pathophysiology of your selected immune
disorders. Explain how the maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders
differ. Finally, explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of
each disorder. Disorders I chose are HIV and Inflammatory Bowel disease

Once the HIV virus gains entry into the cells, it attaches to the CD4 receptors as well as co-
receptor through glycoproteins links. The virus encodes reverse transcriptase, allowing a copy of
genetic component (DNA) to be constructed from viral RNA. Once integrated in the cells, the
provirus can remain quiescent for a long period of time. The virus uses host cell machinery for
replication process. Within few weeks, the virus will have replicated over 10million viral aspects
per microlitre of plasma. This causes a decline in the amount of CD4 counts and immune
mediators resulting to opportunistic infections (Hickey, Gounder, Moosa, & Drain, 2015).
Maladaptive and psychological response
The mutation rate of the virus is very high, causing increased resistance to HIV treatment. The
virus uses host cell machinery for replication process. The Host initial response to the virus is
determined genetically. Coping challenges fluctuates as the disease progress from one stage to
another. Additionally, the patient gets depressed and their social roles and functions are
adversely affected due to stigmatization and financial implication (Hickey, Gounder, Moosa, &
Drain, 2015).
Inflammatory Bowel disease

Running head: Pathophysiology & Immune disorders
Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is caused by dys-regulated immune response to intestinal
micro-flora. The inflammation mainly occurs on the mucosa lining of the intestinal tract which
forms ulceration, bleeding, and edema. Several studies indicates that IBD is influenced by
genetic factors as well as inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, T cells, Helper T cells of
both type 1 and Type 2 (Severance et al., 2013).
Maladaptive and psychological response
Research indicates that psychosocial factors offer an important role in clinical manifestation and
pathophysiology. However, most of the patient could present psychological disorders such as
depression, insomnia and anxiety. Psychosocial factors are thought to mediate alterations of
immune systems resulting to immune mediated diseases such as Cancer and opportunistic
diseases (Sajadinejad et al., 2012).

Running head: Pathophysiology & Immune disorders
Hickey, A., Gounder, L., Moosa, M., & Drain, P. (2015). A systematic review of hepatic
tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. BMC
Infect Dis, 15(1). doi:10.1186/s12879-015-0944-6
Sajadinejad, M., Asgari, K., Molavi, H., Kalantari, M., & Adibi, P. (2012). Psychological Issues
in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview. Gastroenterology Research And Practice,
2012, 1-11. doi:10.1155/2012/106502
Severance, E., Gressitt, K., Yang, S., Stallings, C., Origoni, A., & Vaughan, C. et al. (2013).
Seroreactive marker for inflammatory bowel disease and associations with antibodies to
dietary proteins in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 16(3), 230-240.

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