Research Summary and Ethical Considerations Guidelines
Primary research entails the collection of data to report healthcare news as well as events.
During research the researcher is required to remember the following specific points. First, it
is important to seek permission from participants and relevant ethical authorities who protect
human rights. This is to ensure that the study does not cause harms either emotionally or
physically. The researcher must also maintain objectivity and subjectivity to ensure that all
sources of biasness are eliminated completely. The data collected must be analysed and
reported in accurate form (Quinn, Dunbar, & Higgins, 2010).
This paper prepares me in understanding research requirements and ethical considerations
for research study. This paper selects a quantitative peer reviewed article Sanford, J.,
Townsend-Rocchicciolli, J., Horigan, A., & Hall, P. (2011). A process of decision making by
caregivers of family members with heart failure. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice,
25(1), 55–70. The paper will evaluate the background of the study to identify the issue being
researched and its significance to healthcare and nursing. The purpose of the study,
objectives, methodology and ethical considerations will be evaluated.
Background of study:
The purpose of the study is to investigate ways care givers of patients diagnosed with heart
failure reach the medical decision. This is because most of the studies conducted to date focus
on chronic diseases such as cancer and dementia (Quinn, Dunbar, & Higgins, 2010). The
researcher reports that there is limited understandings of the care givers, which influence the
quality of care as well as support for the patient. The study has outlined two research
questions including “How care givers of the Heart Failure patients make their decisions
during delivery of care? How nurses describe the decision making for the care givers for
patients with heart failure. These research questions are inferential and also factual. The
research design is qualitative based on grounded theory concept (Sanford et al., 2011).
Methods of study:
As mentioned, the researcher describes the study design as qualitative design based on
grounded theory. This is evidenced by the fact that the research is designed in a way to
capture the perspectives of the care givers when delivering care to Heart Failure patients.
Additionally, the methods of data collection involved face to face interviews to obtain their
cognitive processes. The study was a prospective because study applied primary data
(Sanford et al., 2011).
The study recruited about 20 participants from the patient hospitals and in adult care
facilities. The study heterogeneity was enhanced by maintained. Data was collected through
open ended interviews that lasted between 45 minutes- 2 hours. The study sample was
selected randomly. This is important because reduces potential bias by ensuring that the
participants is near representative of the population. The main weakness of this method is that
it is expensive and consuming (Charmaz, 2006).
Additionally, the subjects in this study were not posed to any vulnerability. There are no
particular risks that have been noted in the study, but there are risks that the participants
would experience partial anxiety especially if the researchers questioned or critiqued their
decisions. The other limitation is that the small number of the participants could have
introduced bias due to residual confounding determinants of healthcare. Data analysis
involved transcribing of the verbatim. The data accuracy was determined and entered into
NVivo qualitative software program. Triangulation method was used to maintain validity in
the work (Sanford et al., 2011).
Results of study:
The study findings from the theoretical model that emerged from analysis described the
decision making processes for patients with heart failure. The study indicated that the
caregivers make decisions in phases in nonlinear fashion. The first phase is the actualization
of the challenge or issue. Care givers are faced with numerous challenges from the onset
diagnosis to transition of care from hospital to home care. This is the stage that they
understand that they actually have a decision to make to help improve the patient health. The
second phase identified by the study is seeking of information and support. This includes
sharing of information on ways to manage the health complication (White, Howie-Esquivel,
& Caldwell, 2010).
In this stage, the care givers assume more responsibilities in decision making. The third phase
is reflecting, which is very important before making decision. The reflection process is
spontaneous and allows the care givers to assess the information provided and evaluate the
ability of problem solving. This enables the care givers to put their thoughts in an organized
manner to look at the long term and the short term effects. The fourth stage is decision choice
based on the previous three stages. The last stage is the evaluation of decision making to
determine if the decision made is effective or not (Sanford et al., 2011).
The clinical implications of study are that it helps in identifying the importance of
integrating the care givers in managing the heart failure. Understanding the perspective of
these of care givers will facilitate effective interaction between the patient, care givers and
the healthcare providers. This will contribute to nursing knowledge and impact the education,
and administration of the nursing practices (Sanford et al., 2011).
The article is peer reviewed and has an editorial board. Additionally, prior to embarking on
the research, the researchers sought approval from institutional review board. Similarly,
before the study was published in Research & Theory for Nursing Practice journal, the study
findings were reviewed by the journal editorial board. This is to ensure that the information in
the article is appropriate and accurate and that the copy rights agreements are met. There is
no conflict of interest. The study was non-profit and its aim was to broaden the knowledge in
care for heart failure patients. Additionally, the author’s credentials indicate that they are
reputable. There are no HIPAA concerns identified as participants filled informed consents
and the researchers obtained consent from relevant ethical structure to ensure that the patient
privacy protected (Sanford et al., 2011).
This research summary study has enabled me synthesize the ethical considerations that
should be utilized during the research. This has helped improve the clinical practice and
broaden my understanding of family centred care. The research findings are appropriate for
my practice setting as family nurse practitioner, which assures the safety and effectiveness of
Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative
analysis. London: SAGE.
Quinn, C., Dunbar, S. B., & Higgins, M. (2010). Heart failure symptom assessment and
management: Can caregivers serve as proxy. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
25(2), 142–148.doi: 10.1097
Sanford, J., Townsend-Rocchicciolli, J., Horigan, A., & Hall, P. (2011). A process of
decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure. Research &
Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(1), 55–70.
White, M. M., Howie-Esquivel, J., & Caldwell, M. A. (2010). Improving HF symptom
recognition: A diary analysis. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 25, 7–12.