Hbs108 Health Information And Data
By Student’s Name
August 29, 2014
Question 1.1: What sampling method was used?
In this research study the authors utilized random sampling whereby qualified adults were selected to take part in the research investigation within forty two randomly chosen urban and rural areas for research purposes.
Question 1.2: Is television (including video) viewing time the independent or the dependent study variable?
During this research investigation television viewing was a dependent variable which was dependent on the other variables. The connection between T.V watching and the level of mortality outcome was linear since the T.V watching activity remains considerably associated with both all-causes.
Question 1.3: (This question is based on topic 7) According to the information spawned through the research investigation there is a weak statistically important relationship between the available leisure time and the T.V viewing.
(a) Explain, based on the information in brackets, why the correlation is considered ‘weak’, but statistically significant.
Spearman r4=-0.03 to -0.01 means that the correlation between the variables is weak. The more leisure time people have the more they are able to watch the television. The more they watch the TV the lesser the time they spent doing exercise since most of their time is consumed as they watch TV (Dunstan et al, 2010). In this case, the availability of leisure time increases the level of TV watching and this minimizes physical exercises. We can therefore state that there is a weak correlation between the availability of leisure time and the TV watching time.
(b) What does the negative correlation coefficient tell us about the relationship between
Leisure-time exercise and television viewing time?
As far as leisure time and TV viewing are concerned change only happens in opposite direction so that increase in one is accompanied by the decrease in the other.
Question 1.4: (This question is based on topic 7) Based on the data in Table 2, and using the ≥ 4h/d group and the multivariate- and exercise time-adjusted HRs, which associations between television viewing time and mortality are statistically significant? (i.e. all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and non-cardiovascular and non- cancer mortality). Briefly explain why
According to the research findings, the respondents who spent their time on television rather than take part in physical exercises had more difficult health reports and they were less likely to have finished twelve years in academics. After a six year follow up, 284 deaths occurred out of this number 31% deaths occurred due to Cardial Vascular disease CVD while forty four percentage came as a result of terminal cancer, the other group comprised of twenty five percentage of people without Cardial Vascular disease or cancer. For all the recorded deaths resulting from Cardial Vascular disease mortality, there was validation of a solid continuous increase in the unchanged mortality rates for every increased hour of T.V watching. From this investigation the researchers found out that there was a weak relationship between the T.V viewing activity and the mortality rates resulting from cancer or Cardial Vascular disease mortality.
Question 1.5: (This question is based on topic 7) As discussed in Topic 7, association
(Between exposure and outcome variables) does not, on its own, establish causation, even if the association is statistically significant. The Bradford Hill “tests for causation” are designed to assist in assessing whether associations are likely to be true causal relationships. The Bradford Hill ‘tests’ are as follows
a) Is the association strong? (See Table 2 and note that a HR of 1-1.5 is considered weak; > 1.5 is considered moderate-to-strong). Use the multivariate- and exercise time-adjusted for each type of mortality outcome to support your answer.
Prolonged television watching is directly related with all-cause and CVD mortality. For every hour an individual spent watching the television there was notable eleven percentage and eighteen percent increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, correspondingly. Furthermore, the individuals who watched the television for a less time period like 2 hours there was a 46% increased risk of all-cause and an 80% increased risk of CVD mortality(AIHW, 2010).
There is insignificant relationship between high television watching and the degree of cancer mortality as noted in synchronized research models. And the final results lead to the conclusion that the more hours and individual spends watching the television the more idle they become and this increases their level of Cardial Vascular disease mortality.
(b) Is the association consistent from study to study? (Refer to the Discussion section of the article)
When an elderly patient spends time in physical activities he causes his body to be resilient and he is in a position to avoid premature mortality (Egger et al, 1999). Although it’s not apparent, the years of life expectation gained at diverse levels. The aim of the study was to find out the years gained after objective of this study was however to determine the years gained after forty which are directly connected with the numerous stages of physical activity.
(c) Based on the data in Table 2 is there a dose-response gradient? Again use the
Multivariate- and exercise time-adjusted HRs for each type of mortality outcome to support your answer.
There is a notable dose response gradient which is mainly dependent on the exposure time. Increase in taking calories and minimized energy expenditure are the major mechanisms used to explore how television watching is related to health outcomes. Moreover, respondents who were accustomed to high levels of watching the television had the habit of taking snacks.
Participants with high volumes of television watching also had poor diet profile. The connection between the time the respondents spend watching T.V and mortality was independent of the quality of the diet the participants ingested and the level of their calories intake.
(d) Does the association make biological sense? (Refer to one or two of the ‘biological
mechanisms’ discussed in the ABC Radio National Health Report “Standing” – link provided above under Introduction to support your answer).
The association between television watching and increased CVD mortality makes biological sense. This is because more hours spent in sedentary living only make the patients’ weak. As they watch TV they lack time to exercise and this makes their bodies more weak and vulnerable and increases their mortality rate.
(e) In conclusion, do these four ‘tests’ provide supporting evidence of a true causal
Relationship between sedentary time such as television viewing and adverse health
The Bradford Hill “tests for causation” provide a true causal relationship between sedentary lifestyle and its effect on health outcome. The research has consistently established that television viewing is a sedentary activity which leads to an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality (Dunstan et al, 2010). Additionally, there is notable strength in the results educed that regular exercise serves to minimize the mortality from CVD. Specificity in these tests is notable because the participants are based in similar localities with similar health challenges. Minimizing the time spend watching television and other related sedentary behaviors serves to prevent CVD and premature death.
2.1The qualitative study design.
For the purposes of establishing of investigating the hypothesis that, reducing sedentary time leads to improved health outcomes, this study will be designed on a social constructivism viewpoint. In this case the researchers will convert the research problems into research questions. For more efficiency there will be an ample sample of respondents (AIHW, 2010.).The researchers will make use of literature review, interview and direct observations as methods for educing data from the respondents. Finally, the end results will be interpreted on the basis of combination between researcher perspective and data collected.
2.2The data collection and analysis methods, including:
a) The sample – the sampling frame, the approximate number of study participants,
and method of recruiting the sample of the participants will be selected randomly amongst the VCD and non-VCD individuals from both genders with varying age groups.
b) How the data would be collected (i.e. method(s) of data collection)
The respondents will be interviewed through their telephones and also the researchers will carry out a cohort study to observe and investigate each individual over a given time period.
c) Three examples of questions that could be asked of study participants in order to
Provide data that would assist in meeting the study aims
- Does sedentary life affect human health outcome?
- How does minimized sedentary living bolster human well being?
- In what ways does active life enhance well being amongst the VCD patients and other related diseases.
3.1 The study sample, including how they would be selected and allocated to the study
The researchers will conglomerate self-reported statistics on free time time physical activities and BMIs from just about 10,000 participants who are above the age of forty. They will be investigated for a period of five years through a cohort study. The participants will then be systematically exposed to physical activities. The physical activity will compare to a brisk walk for a period of eighty minutes in duration of one week. its expected that these physical activities will improve life expectancy.
3.2 What would be measured and when. Note that this does not have to be
Comprehensive and detailed – we are looking for an indication of the types of
Variables that would be measured and when.
In this case, the researchers will measure the level of the disease or health challenge and the way it diminishes with the decreased sedentary activity. For instance VCD patients with associated disorders like blood pressure and high cholesterol will be tested through moderate and vigorous exercises to determine their level of resilience to find out whether their continuous exercise minimizes challenges associated with VCD disease.
- Any difficulties that might be experienced in accurately measuring ‘sedentary time
It is impossible to quantify the sedentary time because a person can be watching a television yet he is very busy in the house cleaning the dishes or mopping the floor. Moreover, an individual may be in the house and still carry out exercises such as sit-ups. So being in the house will pose a challenge since the researcher may not quantify whether the participant is busy or not.
AIHW 2010. Australia’s health 2010. Australia’s health no. 12. Cat. no. AUS 122. Canberra: AIHW.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012). Australia’s health 2012. Cat. No. AUS 156. Canberra, AIHW.
Dunstan, D. W., Barr, E. L., Healy, G. N., Salmon, J., Shaw, J. E., Balkau, B. et al. (2010). Television viewing time and mortality: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study(AusDiab). Circulation121(3): 384-391.
Egger, G., Donovan, R., Swinburn, B., Giles-Corti, B., Bull, F. (1999). Physical Activity
Guidelines for Australians: Scientific Background Report, The University of Western Australia and The Centre for Health Promotion and Research, Sydney.
Sugiyama, T., Merom, D., Reaves, M., Leslie, E., Owen, N. (2010). Habitual active transportmoderates the association of TV viewing time with body mass index. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7: 11-1