Apply reflective practice, critical thinking and analysis in health
- Functions of Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA)
The board plays various roles in ensuring that nurses execute their roles well. One of the
roles is to register nurses and midwifery practitioners as well as students. This
registration allows the board to have a clear picture of the nursing professional to ensure
that they deliver better services. The board as well has the responsibilities of developing
codes, standards and guidelines for the nurses and midwifery professions. It also handles
various complaints, notifications, and investigations and hears disciplinary cases
(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, (NMBA), 2014). The board assesses
oversees trained health practitioners that have an interest to working in Australia. Lastly,
the board approves accreditation standards as well as courses of study.
- Use of National Competency Standards for the Enrolled Nurse
These national competency standards are critical in helping to assess the performance of
the registered nurses to establish whether they are competent enough to execute their
responsibilities. These standards provide a framework to assess these nurses competence
to determine whether they qualify to be retained or dismissal from their responsibilities.
The standards as well assess nurses with education overseas that seek to work in
Australia, assess them when they return to work after breaks in the service and whether
the nurses comply with the professional codes of conduct (Nursing National Competency
- Professional codes and guidelines an Enrolled Nurse need to follow to ensure legal
ethical practices adherence.
Nurses must adhere to professional codes and guidelines when executing their
responsibilities. This aims to ensure that they provide quality care to their patients. Some
of the professional codes include, respect and treatment of all the clients, trust, privacy
and confidentiality, autonomy, duty of care and public liability among many others
(Dekking, Van der Graaf & van Delden 2014). Nurses must ensure that they preserve the
privacy of the patients. They as well must act with diligent to save the lives of the
patients (Nursing National Competency Standards 2002). Nurses are also expected to
respect their patients, colleagues and the family members as they execute their services to
- Nurse theories of any three of the following nursing theorists
Various theorists have developed different nursing theories. For instance, Florence
Nightingale developed Environmental theory; Virginia Henderson developed Need
Theory while Dorothea Orem developed self-care theory.
- The benefits of the shift from hospital training (the student nurse as an apprentice) to
the tertiary sector Diploma for Enrolled Nurse and Bachelor Degree for Registered
This shift is very beneficial because it has allowed the nurse practitioners to acquire in-
depth knowledge and skills about the professional. Theories define how practical are
carried out. Therefore, by requiring the enrolled nurse to purse diplomas and degree it
gives them a very firm foundation about the nursing settings. Furthermore, this shift as
well orients the nurse practitioners to different environments (Bogaert, Clarke, &
Willems & Mondelaers 2013). They can learn socialization skills and other valuable
skills in colleagues which they may not learn at the hospital setting. Furthermore,
students at colleges and university as well participate in practical and are required to go
for an attachment in a health facility where they gain more practical skills that help them
to become experienced and competent when they are recruited.
- 4 contemporary work environments enrolled Nurse could work in
Enrolled nurses can work in various environments provided they have appropriate skills
to execute their duties in those environments. One of the work environments is at the
health facility. They can render their services in the health facility that provides various
nursing services to patients (Cleary et al., 2012). They can as well work as administrators
in a health facility. They help to formulate policies and make decisions pertaining to
healthcare. The other setting is online where they provide advices and counseling
services to the patients (Huddleston 2014). They can as well through online prescribe
medication to the patients. This is facilitated by information technology such as internet
and telephones. Another environment is to work with the community to provide
preventive healthcare as well as curative care to the members of the community.
- Description of models of delivering nursing care and likely setting for each
Task oriented (functional nursing) models of delivering nursing care
This model allows the nurse practitioners to handle the tasks they have specialized in.
This ensures that appropriate nurses that have special knowledge attend to certain patients
with specific needs (Cann & Gardner 2012). This model is applied in various departments
in the hospital setting. For instance, nurses that deal with children are assigned in the
pediatric department because they have the requisite skills to execute their
Team nursing model requires that nurses work as a team to address a problem. These are
tasks that cannot be executed by a single nurse and therefore, participation is important to
delivering successful nursing (Cann & Gardner 2012). Example where this model is
applied in medical wards and surgery wards.
This model provides insights on how nurses are expected to deal with their clients at the
health facilities. This model is applied in general health setting, as nurse must understand
how to get along with various clients.
Primary nursing model of delivering nursing is geared at preventing diseases to enhance
better healthcare (Cann & Gardner 2012). Nurses using this model work with the
community members to control health care. They as well work in school setting to help
create awareness about various diseases to help the community members adopt measures
to prevent their spread.
- Attributes of critical thinking
Critical thinking involves many attributes. Critical thinkers evaluate various sources of
information before making any conclusions (Nashville State Community College 2014).
They assess arguments and statements and have a sense of curiosity. They examine
beliefs, opinions, and assumptions and weigh them against facts (Bardach 2011). They
are good listeners and make judgment after accessing to facts.
- What are best practice guidelines?
Best practice guidelines are processes or techniques used as benchmarks to ensure that
quality standard set are met. Best practices must have been tested and shown some sense
of consistency in their outcomes to be relied upon and applied in other settings to help
improve the quality standards (Gitau, Gburek & Jarrett 2005).
- Some of the cultural and religious considerations for nursing practice
There are a number of cultural and religious considerations for nursing practices.
Nursing must therefore understand these considerations to provide quality care to the
patients. Some of the cultural considerations, includes, the cultural beliefs and norms of
the community such as their attitude to treatment, their behaviors in line with
accessibility to healthcare. Some cultures or communities embrace traditional forms of
medication and it becomes difficult to convince them to go to hospitals (Stone, Stone-
Romero & Lukaszewski, 2007). Religious considerations include the faith of the patient,
their doctrine and their approach to health. Different religious affiliation should different
views when it comes to health and healing processes. For instance, Christians provide
support to the sick through prayers and visitation
- Benefits of performance appraisal processes and practices
Performance appraisal processes and practices have various benefits. One of them is
allows the supervisors and employee to share on various aspects that can be addressed o
help foster productivity (Macmillan, Huddleston, Woolley & Fothergill 2003). They as
well help to determine whether the goals set have been achieved. They also encourage
better future performance. Appraisals, as well motivates employees as it allows
recognition of those that have excelled in their duties (Gitau, Gburek & Jarrett 2005. It
also provides insights on the need to training and development of employees to trigger
high productivity (Maley & Kramar 2007).
- Evidence based practice (EBP) in nursing
EBP is practice that focus on critical thinking as well as outcomes. Nurses are expected to
use their academic knowledge and research information and incorporate it into the real
world settings to gain insights and understanding of how to apply it in patient situations,
nurses therefore need to look for quality improved data and expert opinions to meet the
needs of their patients.
- What the term ‘Reflective practice’ mean?
Reflective practice is where practitioners evaluate their decisions with facts before
relying on it. They must understand the consequences of their decisions or actions when
delivering health care to patients. This therefore, helps to enhance quality of healthcare as
precautions are taken to avoid unexpected consequences or results.
- What is quality improvement and accreditation in health
Quality improvement in health care is initiatives undertaken to ensure positive health
outcomes. This process involves carrying out correction measures on all the systems to
ensure that quality healthcare is provided. Some of the initiatives includes, providing
enough equipment and good facilities in healthcare, training and recruiting of skilled and
experienced health providers among many others (Goldfield Institute of Technology
2014). Accreditation in healthcare is getting certified by independent institutions as
having met all the requirement to deliver quality healthcare. To be accredited, a health
facility and practitioners must meet the minimum requirements.
- What are some of the age and gender related issues for nursing practice?
Age and gender related issues for nurse practice includes, the required age for an
individual to join nursing professional and the recommended retirement date. Gender
issues have been experienced in various parts of the world. Most of the societies have
been adamant to allow male join nursing profession as it is viewed as a women
profession. This perceptions and stereotypes have as well affected the number of people
that have joined the profession.
- List of National Law Acts for each state/Territory under which nursing is practiced
In Australia there are six states managed by a premier. Every state has got its own
constitutions and can make legislations and laws pertaining to health and nursing
practices. The six states include South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales,
Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia (Australia Health Practitioner Regulation
Agency, (AHPRA) 2014). As well, ten territories in Australia have passed various
legislations pertaining to nursing practice and health care with the aim of promoting and
improving healthcare in general. These laws in most cases have similarities. They define
the professional codes of conduct of nurses and other laws governing the practice of
nursing in quest to promote quality healthcare (Queensland 2014).
- Discuss educational and career opportunities for Enrolled/Division 2 nurses
Those nurses enrolled for division 2 nurses have an opportunity to pursue a diploma.
They are trained on nursing practices that makes them eligible to assist registered nurses
to execute their duties in healthcare. They can monitor a patient vital signs administer
medications, dress wounds, admit and discharge patients and assist doctor in theater with
various medical procedures. These division 2 nurses have an opening to further their
career in nursing. They can advance in this field by pursuing higher education as they
gain experience in the hospitals.
Australia Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (AHPRA) 2014, Legislation.
Bogaert, P, Clarke, S, Willems, R,&Mondelaers, M 2013, ‘Nurse practice environment,
workload, burnout, job outcomes, and quality of care in psychiatric hospitals: a structural
equation model approach’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 69 no. 7, pp. 1515-1524.
Budin, W, Brewer, C, Chao, Y, & Kovner, C 2013, ‘ Verbal Abuse From Nurse Colleagues and
Work Environment of Early Career Registered Nurses’, Journal of Nursing Scholarship,
Vol. 45 no. 3, pp. 308-316.
Cann, T, & Gardner, A 2012, ‘Change for the better: An innovative Model of Care delivering
positive patient and workforce outcomes’, In Collegian, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 107-113.
Cleary, M et al., 2012, ‘Views and experiences of mental health nurses working with
undergraduate assistants in nursing in an acute mental health setting’, International
Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 21 no. 2, pp. 184-190.
Dekking, S, Van der Graaf, R, & van Delden, J 2014, ‘Strengths and weaknesses of guideline
approaches to safeguard voluntary informed consent of patients within a dependent
relationship’, BMC Medicine. Vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 1-31