Foods rich

Question 1: List the dietary factors and the types of cancers that have a beneficial association. Also, list the types of antioxidants that may reduce the risk of cancer.

  • Foods rich in calcium might help in preventing the occurrence of colorectal cancer.
  • Foods rich in dietary fibre reduce the chances of the development of colorectal cancer.
  • The Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish can stop colon cancer or slow its growth.
  • Vegetables, whole grains, beans, and fruits, which are rich in folic or folate acid, reduce the risk of breast and colorectal cancers.
  • Soy products may help in the prevention of hormone-dependent cancers.

Antioxidants that may reduce the risk of cancer

These include vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids (e.g. vitamin A and beta-carotene), and other chemicals from plants (phytochemicals).

Question 2: What is the EPIC study?

An EPIC study is a multi-dimensional study that is tailored to investigate and report on the relationship between the risk of cancer and diet, nutrition, metabolism and lifestyle choice.

Question 3:

  1. Type of questionnaire used:  The study used a structured dietary questionnaire
  2. Anthropometric measures used –Standing and seated height, weight, the circumference of the waist and hip.
  3. Blood samples were stored at a temperature of -800 c.
  4. The 4 fractions of blood were red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells, and plasma.

Question 4:

  1. Countries involved in the EPIC studies: Denmark, Sweden, UK, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, and Italy.
  2. Subjects involved in the EPIC study:  totalled to 400,000 subjects.

Question 5: How is subject follow-up conducted in regard to cancer type and frequencies in the EPIC Study?  Follow up is being conducted via health insurance data, cancer registries, population mortality registries, and phone and mail follow ups.


Riboli E., & Kaaks, R., (1997). The Epic Project: Rationale and Study Design. International Journal of Epidemiology. 26 (1); S6-S13 [Attached]

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