Write an essay in a 1-2 page Microsoft Word document defining a population that would
like to study during this course. Present the criteria for the inclusion and exclusion and
some general information about your chosen population. Include demographics,
socioeconomics, health risk factors, and environmental hazards
Identified and described the population and rationale for choice.
Analyzed and described the inclusion criteria for population selection
Analyzed and described the exclusion criteria population selection
Identified and summarized the attributes for the selected population
Identified and described the risk factors and environmental hazards associated with the
Books for this course:
Foundations of Nursing in the Community: Community Oriented Practice
Transcultural Health Care: A culturally Competent Approach.
First time mothers breastfeeding population
Most medical associations including the American Congress of Gynecologist and Obstetricians
together with the World health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics
recommends an exclusive six month period of breastfeeding as a target for all infants.
Healthy People 2020, a publication of the US Health and other Human Services revealed that
Infants who breastfed at birth were 82%, while at six month and one year were 61 and 34%
respectively. Breastfeeding is uncommon in the lower income group mostly related with the
blacks and also in the younger age brackets. Also mothers who have undergone the cesarean
birth are most unlikely to breastfeed continually.
First time mothers breastfeeding population 2
The populations selected are mothers who are between the ages of 15 years to 49 years. The
inclusion criteria are those mothers who have given birth normally (vaginal delivery) or through
cesarean. While the exclusion criteria would include those who fall pregnant before the research
is concluded and those who have undergone pelvic surgery. Pregnancy affects and discourages
breastfeeding tendencies in women and may also discourage while mothers who have been
operated on the pelvic joint find it hard to breastfeed. (Li R, Ballew, Gillespie and Grummer-
The rational for choosing these population is that most young mothers are mostly reluctant to
breast feed their children while the older women are mostly excited about their children and are
quick to initiate breastfeeding. The differences in ages allow easier comparisons between the
diverse ages. (Gartner, Morton, Lawrence, Naylor, O’Hare, Schanler et al, 1995)
For each delivery the mothers were asked if they breastfed the child and if they successfully
initiated the child on the first attempt to breastfeed. Several factors affected the outcome of the
questions which included the age of the mother, the delivery type, fetal distress because of
emergencies and labor inductions. The health risks and environmental hazards associated with
the population are that 92% of the population expressed a lot of concern with the baby not
latching adequately, and continued breast pain while in some instances overproduction of milk or
lack of it. Also about 3 to 7 days postpartum were mostly related to discontinuing nursing.
To conclude, most young mothers were hesitant to breastfeed their children while the older
women showed a lot of enthusiasm in the first instance of breastfeeding. The mothers who
delivered normally breastfed their children earlier than those who delivered through cesarean.
First time mothers breastfeeding population 3
Li R, O. C., Ballew, C., Gillespie, C. and Grummer-Strawn L. (2002) Prevalence of exclusive
breastfeeding among US infants: The third national health and nutrition examination survey
(Phase II, 1991–1994) American Journal of Public Health. 92 (7):1107–1110.
Gartner, L.M., Morton, J., Lawrence, R.A, Naylor, A.J., O’Hare, D., Schanler, R.J., et al. (1995)
Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 115 (2):496–506.