Family Nursing

Evaluate the psychosocial effects of living with asthma in relation to nursing care of the
primary school aged child. Discuss how this information will guide evidence based
Australian nursing practice.

Family Nursing

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011) summarised various aspects concerning
asthma in Australia. The strengths of the artefact include its coverage of a broad scope of aspects
that are of interest to the study topic. The artefact gives factual information including the
prevalence of asthma in children (Saini, Krass, Smith, Bosnic-Anticevich, & Armour, 2011, Pg.
190). It also highlights the impacts of asthma from varied viewpoints. Weaknesses of the artefact
include its focus on basic concepts regarding asthma, but failure to highlight treatment and
management concepts of the disease (Katelaris, Sacks, & Theron, 2013, Pg. 507). It also has
limitations such as its failure to identify the impacts of the disease from a psychosocial
perspective. Nevertheless, the artefact gives important information that could propel
epidemiologic studies that would in turn facilitate evidence-based practice (Lim, Kobzik, &
Dahl, 2010). Indication of a high prevalence of the disease in Australia would motivate
stakeholders to take necessary measures for countering the occurrence (Gibbs, 2015; Pal, Dahal,
& Pal, 2009; Rosenkranz, Rosenkranz, & Neessen, 2012). The item offers information that is
relevant to nursing practice in Australia. Nurses would understand that the Australian population
has a higher predisposition to asthma, and they would need to offer intensive patient education to
promote the health of their community (Goeman, Abramson, McCarthy, Zubrinich, & Douglass,

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2013). The artefact also describes financial expenditures directed to asthma management. Such
data gives nurses a rich background concerning the financial impacts of the disease on the
Australian population.
Blanchard, Morris, Birrell, Stephens-Reicher, Third, & Burns, (2014) examined the young
population in Australia for asthma. The researchers noted that asthma had undesirable impacts on
the quality of life that people led. They indicated that asthma has negative impacts on patients
from psychological social and developmental perspectives (Kozyrskyj, Kendall, Jacoby, Sly, &
Zubrick, 2010, Pg. 540). The strengths of the artefact include its comprehensive reporting of the
scientifically-conducted research. The article gives high-level evidence concerning psychosocial
impacts of asthma on the lives of patients. In their methodology, the investigators offered
respondents an opportunity to point out concerns that affected their well-being (Blanchard et al.,
2014, Pg. 6). The practice was advantageous as it resulted in first-hand data concerning
psychosocial impacts of asthma. However, some aspects of the study reported in the artefact
present weaknesses and limitations. For instance, the researchers used pre-validated instruments
of measuring the impacts of asthma on the quality of the lives of patients (Blanchard et al., 2014,
Pg. 14). The survey is also limited in that it addresses people of ages between twelve and twenty-
five years, a group that does not coincide with the school-age children. The study offered
recommendations whose implementation would promote evidence-based practice. It described a
need for practice that purposes to facilitate the education of populations concerning asthma and
its impacts on people’s lives. The study sought to influence nursing practice by recommending
that the practitioners in health care undertake more education regarding the managements and
handling of asthma patients (Evers, Jones, Iverson, & Caputi, 2013).

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National Asthma Council Australia (2015) defined and described the diagnoses of asthma
in children (National Asthma Council Australia, 2015, Pg. 8). The handbook also explained the
difficulties encountered when diagnosing asthma in juveniles (Potter, 2010, Pg. 1). The strengths
of the artefact include a high level of the credibility of its results. It was sourced from a
government agency, and it offers detailed and specific principles concerning asthma. The
handbook offers a clear distinction between concepts of asthma that present in children and the
ones that occur in adults (Martel, Malo, Perreault, & Beauchesne, 2009, Pg. 197; The Cancer
Council, 2015). It also explained how various psychosocial factors influence the management of
asthma in patients (National Asthma Council Australia, 2015, Pg. 41). The handbook also
identifies psychosocial factors that trigger the occurrence of asthma (Suglia, Chambers, Rosario,
& Duarte, 2011; The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA), 2014).
Its weakness is that it dwells solely on practice and, it does not include investigative work.
Therefore, the handbook is limited to practice, and it does not offer much of research. The
artefact applies to evidence-based practice as it gives standardised guidelines concerning the
management of asthma in pediatrics. It is a handy tool for nursing practice as it offers guidelines
on various management practices for patients with asthma (Baiardini, Braido, Bonini, Compalati,
Canonica, 2009, Pg. 230).
Collins, Gill, Chittleborough, Martin, Taylor, and Winefield (2008) explored psychosocial
impacts of asthma on school-age children. The researchers purposed to use a representative
sample to examine the effects that asthma has on the psychosocial lives of children. They found
that children who had asthma were often unhappy, and their health status was generally poor.
The strengths of the article include its high degree of relevance to the study topic. The article
uses keywords that relate directly to childhood asthma and its psychosocial impacts in the lives

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of patients (Suglia, Duarte, Sandel, & Wright, 2010, Pg. 636). The study also included a large
number of participants, hence ensuring that the results obtained were a representation of large
children population. There was also an elevated response rate in the participation of respondents
in the study, an event that enhanced the reliability of the study (Collins et al., 2008, Pg. 490).
Findings from the research also concurred with those of other studies making them realistic.
Weaknesses of the study reported in the article include failure to take objective measurements of
asthma for instance by applying the peak flow rate to assess lung functionality (Bruzzese,
Sheares, Vincent, Du, Sadeghi, Levison, Evans, 2011, Pg. 998). It had major limitations such as
a possible bias considering that participants had to respond to phone calls that some may have
missed. The study applies to evidence-based practice by involving a scientific research to
identify psychosocial impacts of asthma on school children. The investigation influences nursing
practicing by establishing a connection between asthma and mental morbidities (Collins et al.,
2008, Pg. 491; Feitosa, Santos, Barreto-Carmo, Santos, Teles, Rodrigues, & Barreto, 2011, Pg.
160).
Brown, Gallagher, and Fowler (2013) examined the self-efficacy of parents of school-age
asthmatic children in managing the disease. The study offers an authoritative reference to the
study topic. The researchers identified factors that influenced care and management of asthma in
children as offered by their parents. Among the factors were parents’ health education and social
disparities (Giallo, Bahreinian, Brown, Cooklin, Kingston, Kozyrskyj, 2015). Weaknesses
presented in the study include the involvement of a small sample size that would generate
controversy concerning generalisation of findings. Another critical weakness of the study was its
employment of instruments that had not been widely explored in other research works. The study
had limitations such as bearing influence from insufficiency of previous studies addressing major

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concepts in research. The study propels evidence-based learning as it identifies and describes the
necessary interventions of enhancing self-efficacy of the parents of asthmatic juveniles. It
impacts on nursing practice as nurses would drive educative programs to such parents.
The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne (2015) gave guidelines concerning asthma
management in children. The hospital defined asthma and related it to other health complications
linked to it. The artefact explained the pathophysiology of asthma among children and described
different pharmacological interventions applied in the management of the ailment for pediatrics
(Lowe, Carlin, Bennett, Hosking, Allen, Robertson, Dharmage, 2010). The artefact is
authoritative in that it is from a reputable healthcare institution in Australia. It applies perfectly
to the study topic by describing appropriate assessment and management strategies for the
disease. The artefact grades asthmatic conditions on the basis of severity. It would be necessary
for the study to relate disease severity to the psychosocial impacts it has on children. Weaknesses
of the artefact include its failure to describe impacts of asthma on patients’ lives. The resource is
also limited in that it does not offer investigative information but just gives guidelines (National
Asthma Council Australia, 2014). The article has significant impact on evidence-based learning
as it outlines standardised assessment and treatment strategies for the disease (Schultz & Martin,
2013, Pg. 13). It influences the Australian nursing perspective by recommending particular
practices in asthma management and treatment (Perzanowski, Miller, Tang, Ali, Garfinkel,
Chew, Barr, 2010, Pg. 118). Nurses would refer to such guidelines when handling and treating
asthmatic patients.

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References
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Asthma. Retrieved from
http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4338.0main+features152011-13
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011). Asthma in Australia. Retrieved from
http://aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737421255
Baiardini I, Braido F, Bonini M, Compalati E, Canonica GW. (2009). Why do doctors and
patients not follow guidelines? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 2009(9), 228–233.
Blanchard, M., Morris, J., Birrell, E., Stephens-Reicher, J., Third, A., & Burns, J. (2014).
National Young People and Asthma Survey: issues and opportunities in supporting the
health and wellbeing of young people living with asthma (1st ed.). Melbourne. Retrieved
from
http://www.asthmaaustralia.org.au/uploadedFiles/Content/State_Content/National/Media
_releases/2015_Media_releases/YW-Asthma-Survey.pdf

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Brown, N., Gallagher, R., Fowler, C., & Wales, S. (2013). Asthma management self-efficacy in
parents of primary school-age children. Journal Of Child Health Care, 18(2), 133-144.
doi:10.1177/1367493512474724
Bruzzese, J.-M., Sheares, B. J., Vincent, E. J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M. J., … Evans, D.
(2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A
Controlled Trial. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183(8),
998–1006. doi:10.1164/rccm.201003-0429OC
Collins, J., Gill, T., Chittleborough, C., Martin, A., Taylor, A., & Winefield, H. (2008). Mental,
Emotional, and Social Problems Among School Children with Asthma. J Asthma, 45(6),
489-493.
Evers, U., Jones, S. C., Iverson, D., & Caputi, P. (2013). “Get Your Life Back”: process and
impact evaluation of an asthma social marketing campaign targeting older adults. BMC
Public Health, 13, 759. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-759
Feitosa, C. A., Santos, D. N., Barreto-Carmo, M. B., Santos, L. M., Teles, C. A. S., Rodrigues, L.
C., & Barreto, M. L. (2011). Behaviour problems and prevalence of asthma symptoms
among Brazilian children. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 71(3), 160–165.
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.02.004
Giallo, R., Bahreinian, S., Brown, S., Cooklin, A., Kingston, D., Kozyrskyj, A. (2015) Maternal
Depressive Symptoms across Early Childhood and Asthma in School Children: Findings
from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study. PLoS ONE 10(3), e0121459.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121459

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Gibbs, J. E. M. (2015) Eucalyptus Pollen Allergy and Asthma in Children: A Cross-Sectional
Study in South-East Queensland, Australia. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0126506.

Goeman, D. P., Abramson, M. J., McCarthy, E. A., Zubrinich, C. M., & Douglass, J. A. (2013).
Asthma mortality in Australia in the 21st century: a case series analysis. BMJ Open, 3(5),
e002539.
Katelaris, C. H., Sacks, R., & Theron, P. N. (2013). Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the Australian
population: Burden of disease and attitudes to intranasal corticosteroid treatment.
American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy, 27(6), 506–509.

Kozyrskyj, A. L., Kendall, G. E., Jacoby, P., Sly, P. D., & Zubrick, S. R. (2010). Association
Between Socioeconomic Status and the Development of Asthma: Analyses of Income
Trajectories. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 540–546.

Lim, R. H., Kobzik, L., & Dahl, M. (2010). Risk for Asthma in Offspring of Asthmatic Mothers
versus Fathers: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 5(4), e10134.

Lowe, A. J., Carlin, J. B., Bennett, C. M., Hosking, C. S., Allen, K. J., Robertson, C. F., …
Dharmage, S. C. (2010). Paracetamol use in early life and asthma: prospective birth
cohort study. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 341, c4616.

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Martel, M. J., Rey, E., Malo, J. L., Perreault, S., Beauchesne, M. F. (2009). Determinants of the
incidence of childhood asthma: a two-stage case-control study. Am J Epidemiol.,
2009(169), 195–205.
National Asthma Council Australia (2015). Australian Asthma Handbook- Quick Reference
Guide. (1st ed.). Melbourne.
National Asthma Council Australia. (2014). New National Asthma Management Guidelines
Released.
Pal, R., Dahal, S., & Pal, S. (2009). Prevalence of Bronchial Asthma in Indian Children. Indian
Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of
Preventive & Social Medicine, 34(4), 310–316.
Perzanowski, M. S., Miller, R. L., Tang, D., Ali, D., Garfinkel, R. S., Chew, G. L., … Barr, R. G.
(2010). Prenatal acetaminophen exposure and risk of wheeze at age 5 years in an urban
low-income cohort. Thorax, 65(2), 118–123.
Potter, P. C. (2010). Current guidelines for the management of asthma in young children.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, 2(1), 1–13.
Rosenkranz, R. R., Rosenkranz, S. K., & Neessen, K. J. (2012). Dietary factors associated with
lifetime asthma or hayfever diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults: a cross-
sectional study. Nutrition Journal, 11, 84.

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Saini, B., Krass, I., Smith, L., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., & Armour, C. (2011). Role of community
pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary
care models. The Australasian Medical Journal, 4(4), 190–200.

Schultz, A., & Martin, A. C. (2013). Outpatient Management of Asthma in Children. Clinical
Medicine Insights. Pediatrics, 7, 13–24.
Suglia, S. F., Chambers, E., Rosario, A., & Duarte, C. S. (2011). Asthma and obesity among 3
year old urban children: The role of sex and the home environment. The Journal of
Pediatrics, 159(1), 14–20.e1.
Suglia, S. F., Duarte, C. S., Sandel, M. T., & Wright, R. J. (2010). Social and environmental
stressors in the home and childhood asthma. Journal of Epidemiology and Community
Health, 64(7), 636–642.
The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA). (2014). Food Allergy
and Anaphylaxis Update.
The Cancer Council. (2015). Health effects of secondhand smoke for infants and children.

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The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne,. (2015). Asthma Acute. The Royal Children’s Hospital
Melbourne.

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