Identify a research or evidence-based article that focuses comprehensively on a specific intervention or new diagnostic tool for the treatment of diabetes in adults or children.
In a paper of 750-1,000 words, summarize the main idea of the research findings for a specific patient population. Research must include clinical findings that are current, thorough, and relevant to diabetes and the nursing practice.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
1 Research or Evidence-Based Article Identified. Article Focuses on a Specific Diabetic Intervention or New Diagnostic Tool.- Research or evidence-based article identified that focuses on a specific diabetic intervention or diagnostic tool in a comprehensive manner, allowing all criteria of assignment to be fully addressed.
2, Summary of Article Includes the Following Content: Discussion of Research Performed Clinical Findings, and Significance to Nursing Practice.- Content is comprehensive. Presents ideas and information beyond that presented through the course, and substantiates their validity through solid, academic research where appropriate. Research is thorough, current, and relevant, and addresses all of the issues stated in assignment criteria. Final paper exhibits the process of creative thinking and development of proposal. Applies framework of knowledge, practice and sound research. Shows careful planning and attention to how disparate elements fit together.
3, Thesis Development and Purpose- Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
4, Paragraph Development and Transitions- There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.
5, Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)- Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
6, Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)- The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.
Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment)- In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.
Based on the summary of research findings identified from the Evidence-Based Project–Paper on Diabetes that describes a new diagnostic tool or intervention for the treatment of diabetes in adults or children, complete the following components of this assignment:
Develop a PowerPoint presentation (a title slide, 6-12 slides, and a reference slide; no larger than 2 MB) that includes the following:
A brief summary of the research conducted in the Evidence-Based Project – Paper on Diabetes.
A descriptive and reflective discussion of how the new tool or intervention may be integrated into practice that is supported by sound research.
1, Summary of Article (Includes Discussion of Research Performed and Clinical Findings)- Content is comprehensive and presents ideas and information beyond those presented through the course. Research is thorough, current, and relevant, and addresses all of the issues stated in assignment criteria.
2, Proposed Integration of the New Tool or Intervention Into Practice, and Explanation of the Impact of the New Tool or Intervention on nursing practice.- Statement is thorough, descriptive, reflective, and supported with practical and sound research. Shows careful planning and attention to how disparate elements fit together to impact the nursing profession.
3, Layout- The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.
4, Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)- The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.
5, Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)- Writer is clearly in control of standard, written academic English.
6, Evaluating and Documenting Sources (in-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, references page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style)- Title slide is complete. References section includes correctly cited sources. Correct citations are included within the body of the presentation.
Evidence Based Diabetes Diagnostic Tool
Diabetes has become a concern in many parts of the world. Lab Test Online (2014) estimates that, nearly 26 million US residents are diabetic while about 7 million of those infected are not aware of the disease they are suffering from. Therefore, it is important for the disease to be diagnosed with proper tool to ensure a clear base not only for treatment, but also educating the patients on ways through which they can control the disease. One of the evidence based diagnostic tools that have been widely used in diabetes care is the A1C test. This tool is used to monitor the level of glucose in the blood reduce the risk of being infected by the disease.
The use of the A1C Test
The A1C test, also called Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or Glycated Hemoglobin and is expressed as the percentage of glycated hemoglobin and measures the level of chronic glycemia in the blood (Lab Test Online, 2014). Those suffering from diabetes often focus on maintaining a balance on the level of glucose in the blood to a level as low as possible. According to Lab Test Online (2014), accumulation of glucose in the body later damage body systems such as kidney, eyes, heart, and nerves. The A1C test results estimate the level of quantity of glucose that was in the blood for a period of 3 months. This helps those suffering from the disease and the practitioner to know the appropriate measures that the patient requires to control the disease. However, any patient who is under diabetes treatment uses the test in determining whether the treatment needs to be adjusted or not.
A1C test is used often to help patients diagnosed with diabetes the first time; it is meant to establish the levels of their uncontrolled sugar level in the blood for the past 2 to 3 months (Lab Test Online, 2014). Those suffering from diabetes can order the test several times while achieving the control; thereafter as many times as possible to verify that control is being maintained. However, the A1C test should not be used in pregnant mothers; those who have or recently had severe bleeding, blood transfusion, and those with chronic liver or kidney diseases (Lab Test Online, 2014). Moreover, only the standard A1C tests or the test that has been standardized should be used for the purpose of screening or diagnosis. In other words, point-of-care tests including those that doctors might use in their offices or patient bedside should not be used for diagnosis but can help to monitor treatment.
Ordering the Test
The time for ordering the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes that an individual is suffering from, how the disease is controlled, and on the doctor’s recommendation. There are two types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2. Diabetes type 1 is associated with failure of the body to produce enough insulin while diabetes type 2 results from inability of the body to generate sufficient insulin and failure of cells to use insulin that is in the body properly (Lab Test Online, 2014). According to Lab Test Online (2014), the A1C test might be administered 2 to 4 times each year. For the purpose of diagnosing and screening, the practitioner might order the A1C test as part of health check up or when the practitioner suspects the patient to have diabetes due to symptoms that are associated with increasing blood glucose levels. The symptoms include;
- Increased thirst,
- Increased urination,
- Blurred vision, and
- Slow-healing infections.
Implications of the Test Results
A1C values are reported as a percentage of glycated hemoglobin in the blood and measures the level of chronic glycemia (Lab Test Online, 2014). For those suffering from the diabetes, they should keep their A1C below 7%. Those suffering from type 2 diabetes might select their A1C goal in assistance with the practitioner. However, the goal depends on a number of factors including the duration of diagnosis, whether they are suffering from other diseases alongside diabetes, complications that might result from low levels of glucose in the blood, or whether the patient has health care resources to support him/her. Those who have suffered from heart diseases for a long duration, have types 2 diabetes, but do not have diabetes complications require higher A1C target of between 7.5% and 8%. However, those who are healthy but have been diagnosed for the first time require lower target, between 6% and 6.5%. However, they should have normal blood sugar in their blood.
The A1C results are expressed in International Standard unit (SI) (mmol/mol) and can also be expressed as estimated average glucose (eAG) (Lab Test Online, 20140). The eAG results are calculated based on the levels of A1C. Expressing A1C as eAG helps those suffering from diabetes to relate A1C results to the daily glucose levels in their blood and also to glucose tests from the laboratory (Lab Test Online, 2014). The formula that is used to convert A1C results into eAG is; 28.7 X A1C (%) – 46.7 = eAG (milligrams/deciliter, mg/dl). After screening and diagnosis a non-diabetic person might have A1C results less than 5.7% (39 mmol/mol), a person suffering from diabetes might have A1C level of 6.5% (47 mmol/mol) or higher, while those who at higher risk of infection might have A1C level of between 5.7% and 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol).
Laboratory tests are important in diagnosing and proving appropriate treatment for those suffering from diabetes. Evidence-based research conducted by Lab Test Online, (2014) concluded that, A1C test is an important tool for diagnosing those suffering from diabetes. A1C test is used to check the level of glucose in those suffering from diabetes for more than 3 months. Through the use of A1C tool for testing diabetes, physicians have clear understanding of the levels of glucose in diabetic patients with minimal errors. The results from the findings made it easier for practitioners to read the diabetes laboratory results. That is, it enabled the clinicians to relate A1C values with the daily measurements of on the glucometer. Through the use of average glucose standard measures, the practitioners and patients are able to understand the reported A1C glucose levels in the blood. Ideally, the evidence-based diagnostic tool helps the health practitioners to identify the diabetic patients.
Lab Tests Online. (2014). A1C.