Diabetes

Abstract

            Diabetes is presently a popular chronic disease where the patient is required to make a wide array of self-management decisions daily as well as perform complicated care activities. Diabetes self-management education acts as the basis to assist the patients to navigate these activities and decisions. Kapoor and Kleinbart (2012) indicated that it greatly improves health outcomes. Diabetes education on self-management can be described as the process through which the skills, knowledge, and ability needed for the disease’s self-care is facilitated. As far as diabetes type 2 is concerned, patient education covers different aspects. Therefore, how effective the education is will greatly determine the extent to which the patient will engage in self-care. some of the aspects that patient education should cover includes the treatment options, disease process, causes, factors contributing to the disease, nutritional plan, exercise plan, knowledge about the medications that are prescribed, monitoring blood glucose, knowledge about the chronic and acute complications, individual approaches for promoting health, and the psychosocial issues (Mshunqane, Stewart & Rothberg, 2012).  Regardless of how patient education is important, proper education still lacks, and there are a number of factors contributing to this. This paper aims at exploring the lack of proper education among diabetes type 2 patients.

Quality measures

            Recently, NICE updated guidance on diabetes type 2 management. The National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions developed the guidance. The then NICE guidelines are replaced and recommendations in some technology appraisals updated. The guidance will function as the only reference point for all care aspects. Worth noting, the guidance puts a lot of emphasis on patient education and complexities of management, lifestyle changes, as well as therapy side-effects have been made the priority. There is a recommendation that people suffering from diabetes type 2 should receive continuous education beginning from diagnosis, in addition to tailored dietary advice. The ADA’s (America Diabetes Association) position is that all diabetes patients should be provided with education and support from diagnosis and thereafter (Ruffin, 2016). The position statement is meant for the specific needs of people suffering from diabetes. This gives the indication that awareness among the patients is acknowledged as a very cardinal aspect for successful self-care.

Assessing the Need for Change in Practice

Stakeholders

            The diabetes type 2 patients are the key stakeholders. These patients’ caregivers are also cardinal stakeholders since they mostly are concerned with caring for the patients. The entire healthcare team is a main stakeholder based on the fact that there are different aspects that should be monitored in patients on a regular basis (Green, 2014).

Barriers to Change

            Some of the barriers that are likely to hinder change include the existing knowledge, fears and beliefs about the disease, accessibility to care, the influence of friends and peers, and health beliefs affect learning and consequently, the management behaviors. Therefore, it is worth pointing out that comprehending the expectations and needs of diabetes type 2 patients is cardinal in improving and initiating the education programs’ outcomes for effective self-care (Lee et al., 2013).

Facilitators to Change

            Change can only be facilitated by making comprehensive explanations about the different aspects of the disease so that the patients can understand the impacts of failing to engage in the recommended practices. If patients have all the necessary details about the disease, then it would be easy for them to do away with the barriers that prevent proper information reception. For example, a patient who knows about the disease well is less likely to continue holding on health and spiritual beliefs that would only contribute to negative consequences (Garber, Gross & Slonim, 2010).

Internal Data

            Many people present in healthcare institutions with the symptoms of diabetes type 2. An early diagnosis greatly ensures that complications are avoided and management done properly.

External Data

            Everyone in Ontario ought to comprehend the disease’s seriousness since all are susceptible to it as well as the resulting health impacts. Diabetes type 2’s prevalence is alarmingly high. It is also expected to rise within the coming decade. In Ontario, more than 600,000 people suffer from the disease while many others are not yet aware that they have the disease. 4 out of 10 people suffering from the disease will develop long-term and debilitating complications. The disease is a known main cause of kidney disease, blindness, premature death, stroke, heart disease, and limb amputation among others.

Theoretical Model and Framework

            The social learning theory that was crafted by Bandura is proper for exploring this issue at hand. It argues that people gain knowledge and skills after observing and imitating others, and through modeling. It also entails of aspects like memory, attention, and motivation. Learning occurs after people observe the attitudes as well as the behaviors of other people, in addition to the consequences of those attitudes and behaviors. Mostly, learning occurs through modeling and observation (Chijioke, Adamu & Makusidi,  2010).  Therefore, if a given community continuously engages in activities aimed at managing and preventing diabetes type 2 which are encouraged by healthcare professionals, with lower disease rates, complications, and deaths as the effects, then all the communities around will imitate the particular community so as to realize similar impacts.

Problem

            Regardless of the fact that various members in the community and from the healthcare team contribute in different ways to patient education, there is a great need for the providers as well as the practice settings to possess systematic referral processes and resources so that patients can receive education consistently. For example, the first education session might be offered by the healthcare professional while ongoing education sessions are offered by other practice personnel (Rosenstock & Owens, 2008). This can result to inconsistencies. Many times the programs that are designed fail to address the health beliefs, current knowledge, cultural needs, emotional concerns, physical limitations, financial status, family support, health literacy, medical history, and numeracy among other factors.

Problem Statement

            There are numerous barriers that hinder effective patient education. Unless if those barriers are addressed, then even the most comprehensive education sessions will be useless (Stults-Kolehmainen & Sinha, 2014).

Possible Interventions

            There is a great need for healthcare professionals to provide structured education to all diabetes type 2 patients and their care givers right from the diagnosis time. this should be accompanied by annual review and reinforcement. In addition, the practitioners ought to inform the caregivers and patients that the education is a cardinal component of diabetes care. The reviews should be conducted regularly based on need identification. Education should focus on all the good practice principles. In addition to this, the professionals should be keen at identifying the barriers that are likely to interfere with effective education reception or practice of all that was taught. The barriers should all be eliminated for effectiveness. Valencia and Florez (2014) noted that many patients anticipate diabetes education barriers. He, therefore, recommended that interventions at the multiple levels ought to address the socioeconomic and demographic diabetes education obstacles for effective self-management training (Zoepke & Green, 2012).

Critical Outcome Indicators

            Definitely, following effective education among diabetes type 2 patients, numerous critical outcomes indicators would be evident.  The patients would be able to make to make informed decisions about the treatment options that need, and understand more about the disease process. Moreover, they would be active in educating others about the causes and factors that contribute to the disease as a preventive measure. Moreover, following awareness creation on the proper diets, the patients would always be able to engage in appropriate nutritional and exercise plans, which would help prevent the related chronic diseases. The patients would also be able to engage actively and appropriately in monitoring blood glucose, taking right medications, taking the necessary measures to prevent the chronic and acute complications, promote health appropriately, and well as address the psychosocial issues (Augustyniak & Tadeusiewicz, 2009).

Goals and Purpose

            Eliminating the barriers to diabetes education can ultimately improve patient experiences on education and care, improve populations and individuals’ health, as well as minimize diabetes- associated healthcare costs. In addition to eliminating the barriers, it is important to create an algorithm that defines what, how, and when the education should be offered to the patients.

Purpose Statement

            Eliminating barriers to education and creating a proper algorithm can greatly promote effective education for better health.

References

Augustyniak, P., & Tadeusiewicz, R. (2009). Background 2.

Chijioke, A., Adamu, A. N., & Makusidi, A. M. (January 01, 2010). Mortality patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ilorin, Nigeria : original research. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa, 15, 2, 79-82.

Garber, J. S., Gross, M., & Slonim, A. D. (2010). Avoiding common nursing errors. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Green, B. (June 06, 2014). Diabetes and diabetic foot ulcers : an often hidden problem : review. Sa Pharmacist’s Assistant, 14, 3, 23-26.

Kapoor, B., & Kleinbart, M. (April 01, 2012). Building an Integrated Patient Information System for a Healthcare Network. Journal of Cases on Information Technology (jcit), 14, 2, 27-41.

Lee YK, Ng CJ, Lee PY, Khoo EM, Abdullah KL, Low WY, Samad AA, Chen WS, & Lee, Yew Kong. (2013). What are the barriers faced by patients using insulin? A qualitative study of Malaysian health care professionals’ views. Dove Press.

Mshunqane, N., Stewart, A. V., & Rothberg, A. D. (January 01, 2012). Type 2 diabetes management : patient knowledge and health care team perceptions, South Africa : original research. African Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 4, 1, 1-7.

Rosenstock, J., & Owens, D. (January 01, 2008). Treatment of Type 2 Using Insulin: When to Introduce?.

Ruffin, T. R. (January 01, 2016). Health Information Technology and Change.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., & Sinha, R. (January 01, 2014). The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise. Sports Medicine, 44, 1, 81-121.

Valencia, W. M., & Florez, H. (January 01, 2014). Pharmacological treatment of diabetes in older people. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 16, 12, 1192-203. Zoepke, A., & Green, B. (January 01, 2012). Diabetes and diabetic foot ulcers : an often hidden problem : general review. Wound Healing Southe

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