Constructing and interpreting graphic displays of behavior data

The unit 6 Assignment requires you to apply the theories, concepts, and research that we have covered so far this term to a hypothetical case study. Your answers to the questions and completed graph should consist of information from the text and supplemental readings.

You also may use sources from the Kaplan library or other credible Internet sources, but your primary sources should be the readings assigned for the course.

These include:

Academic Search Premier

EBSCO

ERIC

Pub Med

After reading the case, please fully answer the questions below.

Answers to the questions and the completed graph should be prepared in a Word document, double-spaced in 12-point font and submitted to the Dropbox. Most students will need to write 2-3 pages for the case in order to address all required parts of the project.

Your final paper must be your original work; plagiarism will not be tolerated. Be sure to review the Syllabus in terms of what constitutes plagiarism.

Please make sure to provide proper credit for those sources used in your case study analysis in proper APA format. Please see the APA Quick Reference for any questions related to APA citations. You must credit authors when you:

  1. Summarize a concept, theory or research
  2. Use direct quotes from the text or articles

Case Study 1: Martin

Martin, a behavior analyst, is working with Sara, a 14-year-old girl with severe developmental delays who exhibits self-injurious behavior (SIB). The self-injurious behaviors included pulling her hair, biting her arm and banging her head against the wall. After conducting a functional analysis, Martin decided to employ an intervention program consisting of differential reinforcement of other (DRO) desired behavior. Martin collected data on Sara’s SIB before and during the intervention. Below is a depiction of the data that Martin collected:

Sara’s Frequency of SIB

BASELINE Occurrences DRO Occurrences

22 5

25 5

27 3

26 2

Address the following questions, and complete the following requirements:

1.Create a basic line graph using Microsoft Excel, to be included in your Word document. The graph should depict the data provided in this case study. You should only need to create one graph, with SIB depicted, both in baseline and in intervention.

2.What type of research design did Martin employ when working with Sara?

3.According to the data, did the intervention that Martin selected work in modifying Sara’s self-injurious behavior?

4.Martin had considered using an ABAB reversal design when working with Sara. What are some ethical implications of selecting a reversal design when working with the type of behavior problems that Sara was exhibiting?

5.Martin’s supervisor requested this graph of the data he collected when working with Sara. Why are graphs useful in evaluating behavior change?

6.Discuss what a functional relationship is and how an ABA professional would use his/her understanding of functional relationships when designing an intervention. Identify whether the graph that your created using the data provided in this section depicts a functional relationship.

Read the following selections in the text Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures:

�pp. 39-60, about graphing behavior data and measuring change

� pp. 101-121, about punishment and ethical considerations when using aversive stimuli

�Read the following section in the Cooper text:

�pp. 125-156, on constructing and interpreting graphic displays of behavior data

References

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. Upper Saddle, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Miltenberger, R. G. (2012). Behavior Modification Principles and Procedures; 5th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Case Study

Introduction

Applied behavior analysts utilize the use of simple graphs to analyze visual display of the relationship of between a series of relevant variables from a quantitative data. Graphs are the most important devices when analyzing applied behaviors as they organize, interpret and effectively communicate the required results of the data analysts. (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007)

1.

2. Martin used the A-B-A-B method which represent the attempt to measure the baseline, A the  first B is the treatment measurement and the second A represents the withdrawal of treatment while the second B represents the the reintroduction of the treatment.

3. They worked, the DRO occurrence reduced from 5 to 2. The Baseline occurrence responded well to the intervention employed worked in reducing Sarah’s SIB from 5 to 2 while the progressive graph indicated the effectiveness of the intervention as it increased from 22 to 25, when the intervention was withdrawn, an improvement was noted from 25 to 27 while when it was later re-introduced the effective was negative as the overall effect of the intervention reduced from 27 to 26. (Moore, Mueller, Dubarb, Roberts and Sterling-turner, 2002)

4. On complex situations the extinction phase of the treatment can also be the baseline of another extra treatment. This type of intervention designs allows overlapping intervention with a single subject. The first A and B1 represent the first treatment and its application in the first instance, A2 is the removal of the treatment and also the baseline for the second intervention and another application B2 follows again and also an extinction phase, A3 may again become a baseline for another treatment.

5. Applied behavior analysts utilize the use of simple graphs to analyze visual display of the relationship of between a series of relevant variables from a quantitative data. Graphs are the most important devices when analyzing applied behaviors as they organize, interpret and effectively communicate the required results of the data analysts. They enable independent judgment and encourage accurate interpretation and meaning of behavior change instead of relying on complex formulas and volumes of data interpretation methods and analysis. (Miltenberger, 2012) Graphs also act as feedbacks on the intervention methods being used. Graphing the performance of your treatment options demonstrates the direction the treatment is taking and whether it’s effective or not

6. A function is a relationship that is well behaved. A function is a relationship but not all relationships are functions. A function displays a particular trend that in most cases is predictable. Given a starting point, someone can map out the final point while following the trend. ABA professional rely on the outcomes of their research to determine the effectiveness of their interventions or treatment methods. The progress of the intervention is normally noted and the functions plotted on a graph that will depict the visualization of the whole exercise on a line graph.

The graph represents a functional relationship between the baseline and the SIB which is represented by the DRO. The DRO occurrence reduced from 5 to 2. The Baseline occurrence responded well to the intervention employed worked in reducing Sarah’s SIB from 5 to 2 while the progressive graph indicated the effectiveness of the intervention as it increased from 22 to 25, when the intervention was withdrawn, an improvement was noted from 25 to 27 while when it was later re-introduced the effective was negative as the overall effect of the intervention reduced from 27 to 26.

To conclude, Visual analysis is one of the most conservative methods of pre-empting and determining the functional relationship of behavior change. They enable independent judgment and encourage accurate interpretation and meaning of behavior change instead of relying on complex formulas and volumes of data interpretation methods and analysis. Graphs also act as feedbacks on the treatment methods that are being used and their effectiveness. They also measure the performance of the treatment options and also demonstrate the progress of the treatment applications.

References

Behavior Analysis, Vol. 35 pg 285.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth STN

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. Upper Saddle,

Influence of Therapist Attention On Self Injury during Tangible Condition, Journal of Applied
Miltenberger, R. G. (2012). Behavior Modification Principles and Procedures; 5th Edition.

Moore, J.W., Mueller, M.M., Dubarb, M., Roberts, D.S. and Sterling-turner (2002) The Influence of Therapist Attention On Self Injury during Tangible Condition, Journal of Applied

New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

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