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� Discuss at length three of those examples that represent effective and ineffective
� Provide a supported analysis of these methods.
� Provide supported suggestions for making changes to the above three models.

� Three examples of effective and ineffective assessment practices.
� Analysis of and suggestions for each of the methods chosen.
� At least three scholarly journal articles used to support the analysis of the

Effective Assessment Practices

Research indicates that the process of learning to teach is similar to children/ student
growth, i.e. it is developmental. There have been various theories that have proposed on the

Running head: Effective Assessment Practices

professional development process. The proposed theories are sometimes fixed, sequential, or
flexible. Irrespective of theory applied, it is important to establish learning processes that
encourage increased systematic inquiry as well as reflective assessment strategies. Reflective
assessment strategies are important because they are used to evaluate a student’s level of
understanding, improve learning, and identify learning challenges. Effective assessment
strategies are those, which involve purposeful planning (Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Salvia, 2013).
Assessment practices: effective and non effective
One example of assessment is the portfolios. In this type of assessment requires student
to assemble the specific topic information in a systematic approach to ensure the whole picture
of their growth and achievement is reflected. This is because it normally contains speech in the
form of term paper, thereby ensuring that work is produced in realistic in context. This method is
effective because the student is able to document their ability for critical thinking because they
actually include actual samples, which require creative thinking and problem solving ability.
This takes the tutor on the processes or stages the student is going through when assigning tasks.
The potential issues arise because it is possible for teachers to be convinced by fuzzy tasks,
which normally would require extraneous performance. Additionally, there is potential danger if
teachers are allowed to use this type of assessment because it might not fit into course
needs/demands (Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Salvia, 2013).
Teacher-based assessment embraces a broad spectrum of activities and is effective for
teachers to evaluate their strengths as well as weaknesses. This is because it enables the
instructors chose the best or the appropriate format to evaluate the achievement of their targets.
In this case, the test items often match the student objectives ensuring that there is adequate
content validity. The main issue with this task is the problem of authenticity. In some cases the

Running head: Effective Assessment Practices

students could feel that the assessment does not mirror the skills, and could become anxious,
especially if they compare their performances with their peers (Kitiashvili, 2014).
Rubrics assessment practices have been widely used to assess educational values. It
enables the enactment of learning goals and objectives. It is a way of improving on student
weaknesses. It enables reflective thinking because it establishes a multidimensional performance
with time. This approach does not only assess student knowledge and abilities but also improves
attitudes and values. This assessment helps the teacher to improve explicitly shared purposes.
The power of the assessment is not episodic but rather cumulative (Kitiashvili, 2014).
It enables the student to identify relevant strategies that will facilitate credible and
suggestive decisions that are applicable. According to this assessment, the important issue is not
to collect date and return results, but a process that helps the student to analyze and interpret
data, which will allow the students to improve. Through this process, educators are in a position
to produce responsible students in the society. This is because responsibility goes beyond
reporting of results but also involves attempts to improve the challenges that prevail (Salvia,
Ysseldyke, & Salvia, 2013).
Some of the bad assessment practices are those, which assume that a student knows the
information being evaluated. Summative assessments assume that the student requires no
influence or no change. Such type of assessment has a backwash effect on learning. This is
because it makes students memorize rather than understanding the facts. Additionally, norm
referenced assessments are associated as league tables which indicates the best and the brightest
student. This undermines the education standards as it distracts the student’s attention on what
ought to be done. This method of comparing students with peers makes the teacher fail to have
insight on values and standards of the institution. These methods of assessment have been

Running head: Effective Assessment Practices

prohibited in most of the public universities in Europe. This is because it corrupts the mind of the
graduate as well as university’s systems. The society needs graduate with higher levels of skills
and who are able to work autonomously. In this context, the best type of assessment is the
criterion and standards referenced is the most proposed form because it addresses the dynamic
demands of the population without deciding that one student deserves a certain percentage than
others (Astin & Antonio, 2012).
Some assessment does not treat students equally. Additionally, there are assumptions
that students will cheat the exams. Even so, exams have been found as the only way to avoid
impersonation and plagiarism. This has resulted to emphasis on memorization which ill befits the
modern student. The best approach is to used the open book tests which will ensure that the
student is assed based on their understandings rather than prioritizing memorization. Arguably,
when student cheat, they do so because they have an incentive that encourages their acts and that
they are not likely to be discovered. Additionally, if the assessments are not tailored to assess the
student’s interests and those tasks are made and recycled such that it is easy for a student to
copy. Anonymity results to breeding of an examination cheating population. Therefore, it is
important for the faculties to emphasize assessment activities, which are fresh (Baird, 2014).
Therefore, an effective assessment practice is one, which will influence the teaching as
well as the studying pattern. This implies that each student assessment should have an agenda.
The main carrier of an effective assessment is the tutor’s experiences and the associated distress.
No matter the academic success, most people have had unpleasant experiences. Most of the
examiners have fear associated with humiliation experienced in the past. For this reason, most of
the examiners have made assessment charged with some degree of emotion, which does not act
in the interests of the students. This has led to a pattern of setting assessment, i.e. if it was

Running head: Effective Assessment Practices

humiliating, the assessment must also be humiliating; or if it was easy for the tutor, then it should
be simplified for the students (Sotelo-Dynega & Dixon, 2014).
None of the measures is superior to the other. Assessment practice must be designed in a
way that it prevents unnecessary tension. The assessment should be thorough enough to help the
student remained charged enough and not inflaming the academic situation. This implies that
teachers should be mindful by briefing the requirements of the assessment. The teachers must
remain explicit on how the assessment will be marked; and in ensuring that the students work is
judged according to the student’s presentation and that marking is not influenced by ethnic or
socioeconomic status. The assessment practice should signal the student on the most valuable or
important thing in their profession, and the desired outcomes.

Running head: Effective Assessment Practices


Astin, A., & Antonio, AL. (2012). Assessment for excellence: the philosophy and practice of
assessment and evaluation in higher education. Maryland. Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc.
Baird, J. (2014). Teachers’ views on assessment practices. Assessment In Education:
Principles, Policy & Practice, 21(4), 361-364. doi:10.1080/0969594x.2014.960689
Kitiashvili, A. (2014). Teachers’ attitudes toward assessment of student learning and teacher
assessment practices in general educational institutions: The case of Georgia. Improving
Schools, 17(2), 163-175. doi:10.1177/1365480214534543
Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J., & Salvia, J. (2013). Assessment in special and inclusive education.
Boston: Cengage Learning.
Sotelo-Dynega, M., & Dixon, S. (2014). Cognitive assessment practices: a survey of school

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