For each source listed, begin with a summary of the information you found in that specific source. The summary section gives your reader an overview of the important information from that source. Remember that you are focusing on a source’s method and results, not paraphrasing the article’s argument or evidence.
- The questions below can help produce an appropriate, scholarly summary:
- What is the topic of the source?
- What actions did the author perform within the study and why?
- What were the methods of the author?
- What was the theoretical basis for the study?
- What were the conclusions of the study?
Caring for Autistic Individuals
Caring for Autistic Individuals
Johnson, B. P., Papadopoulos, N., Fielding, J., Tonge, B., Phillips, J. G., & Rinehart, N. J. (2013). A quantitative comparison of handwriting in children with high-functioning autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(12), 1638-1646.
This article focused on establishing the difference in handwriting between children suffering from attention deﬁcit hyper- reactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with high- functioning autism (HFA) to establish the effects of this disorders in academic welfare of the children. The author achieved this by having children duplicate words cat and dog repeatedly paying attention to space, size errors and speed. The study involved 49 participants all boys between ages of 7 and 14 years who had to complete the handwriting performance test (HPT). The base of this study is to illustrate how HFA and ADHD affect children in their academics limiting their expression through writing. The findings of this task indicate the existence of writing impairments in these children, and therefore there need tailored writing therapies. As it has been found in other studies, ADHD and HFA significantly affects the writing speed of the individuals. However, it has been found that other factors contribute to the lower writing speed. The study is limited in that the sample size was small.
The findings are applicable for caregivers especially teachers who care for autistic children. As such, the teachers can be able to apply different teaching methods with these children. Since the article explains the differences in factors that contribute to slow handwriting in children with ADHD and HFA, teachers are enlightened on how to how children with different disorders differently.
Kreider, C. M., Bendixen, R. M., Mann, W. C., Young, M. E., & McCarty, C. (2015). Mixed-method exploration of social network links to participation. OTJR: occupation, participation and health, 1539449215578650.
This article discusses the importance of Social Networks (SNs), and how this network affects the participation of youths especial those with Attention Deﬁcit Hyper- Reactivity Disorder (ADHD), Learning Disorder (LD), and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were interviewed individually, and the author performed personal link investigation to determine their level of participation. The method used was a combination of both qualitative and quantitative analysis blended in a mixed method design. This exercise was based on assessing the relationship between SN and participation and how these disorders affect the participation of youths. The findings of this study point out the communication impairments in individuals with these disorders. This, therefore, indicates the need to encourage the youths to participate more in social interactions to enhance their social skills. This reading has focused on the role of peers, family members and other acquaintances that comprise the SNs of these individuals in promoting their participation. The study is limited in that it lacked online participations. In addition, the sample was small, and only a few participants have complex cognitive disorders.
It is, however, beneficial to parents, friends and other family members interacting with youth with any of the disorders. Therefore, it is important for family members and friends to encourage the participation of these youths in different social activities. The study indicates that some of these individuals do not make much sense during the conversations; however, friends and relatives should not shun or discourage them. What they need is encouragement and be treated like normal persons in case of such incidents.
Heyvaert, M., Saenen, L., Campbell, J. M., Maes, B., & Onghena, P. (2014). Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: An updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research. Research in developmental disabilities, 35(10), 2463-2476.
In this paper, the writer evaluates essence of behavioral interventions in eradicating the problem behavior in individuals diagnosed with autism. To come up with relevant information, the author conducted searches from journals, bibliographies, and databases. The analysis was then done to align the various sources of original studies. The method applied was a quantitative blend of mono subject studies comprising of 213 sources representing 358 individuals with autism. This study is based on the numerous problems that originate from autism and how their impacts can be reduced. The results indicate that behavioral interventions are effective in reduction of these problems; however, some are better than others are. This study has managed to cover most of the details concerning different behavioral interventions and how they can be employed to cater for problems resulting from autism. As such, it is a good piece for caregivers of individuals with challenging behaviors because of autism.
The different behavioral interventions that are described by the author of this article can be applied by parents and caregivers to handle different challenging behaviors portrayed by individuals with these disorders. This article provides crucial information for these caregivers because some of the challenging behaviors can have detrimental effects to these individuals their siblings or the caregivers. For instance self-injury behaviors can be managed through stories talks or combined therapy that has been proved efficient.
Hebron, J., Humphrey, N., & Oldfield, J. (2015). Vulnerability to bullying of children with autism spectrum conditions in mainstream education: a multi‐informant qualitative exploration. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 15(3), 185-193.
This paper lays focus on how autism results in bullying of affected children in schools, and how this bullying affects them as well as how it should be handled. The author conducted interviews with five children with autism aged between 5-13 years, their parents as well as teachers. The method put into practice by the author is a cross-sectional qualitative analysis with semi-structured interviews for data gathering. The base of this study is the rampant cases of bullying of children with autism raising a lot of concern. The study concluded that bullying in schools is a serious problem for children with autism hence affecting their peer relationships. This creates the need for school staff to create a strong protective role for these children. As such, teachers should build a good relationship with these children to encourage communication and hence reduce the bullying risk. The limitation of this study is that the size of the sample is very small. However, the author has managed to cover principal areas such as the role of parents, teachers, and the entire school in the reduction of the bullying risk.
This study helps the caregivers on the signs to look out for to detect bullying and the actions to take in case of an incident. It also explains the role of teachers and parents in containing bullying. The article also describes how teachers can discourage bullying through punishment of the culprits. It also explains how children who have undergone bullying can be mentored to recover their self-confidence and hence social participations.
Daley, T. C., Weisner, T., & Singhal, N. (2014). Adults with autism in India: A mixed-method approach to make meaning of daily routines. Social Science & Medicine, 116, 142-149.
In this book, the author focuses assessment of daily activities for grown-ups with autism in India. The data was collected from 32 participants by verbal interviewing as well as engaging them in a series of tasks outside their homes. Questioners were also given to the parents of the participant to fill. Mixed method was used to acquire the information. The basis of this study was the need to evaluate how and where adults with autism performed their daily activities. The results show that majority of the adults are let out in the public at least occasionally. Although the parents reported challenges from abnormal behaviors, it was conclusive that these individuals are not hidden. Like with other studies, this one used a small number of participants and the study time was limited.
This article has been successful in determining how parents and other family members can deal with adults diagnosed with autism without restricting them. In addition, this reading describes the importance of letting these individuals free when performing their daily activities. Parents are therefore provided with different guidelines on how they can encourage these individuals to perform their chores and interact with the outside world without supervising them all the time.
Artiste, F. M. (2014). Characteristics of Successful Classroom Behavior Therapists of Individuals with Autism: A Qualitative Case Study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Akron).
The author of this reading had an aim of bringing out the attributes that classroom therapist should have for successful caregiving for individuals with autism in a class setting. The author selected and interviewed teachers from different schools. One of the methods used by the author is behavior based interviewing of individuals to obtain meaningful information and qualitative design to analyze the information. The reading is based on the rising cases of children diagnosed with autism creating the need for special care in classrooms as well as interventions to cater for their behavioral problems. The findings of this study indicate that for quality intervention, teachers require dedication, teamwork with other teachers and mastery of other teaching methods. The major limitation of this study is that it had inadequate number of participants as well as study time. The author has also failed to describe the nature of questions asked from the participants
Despite these limitations, teachers and therapists in their preparations for teaching can apply the article to attain the different attributes that teachers need to have. For instance to handle some behaviors like screaming of the individuals can be handled through a song asking the individual to answer some questions. The article also described how the classroom therapists can attain the different attributes they need to handle their students with autism.
Basics of the synthesis
After analysis of these readings, different modes of handling individuals with autism have been put forward to assist caregivers such as parents; teachers, siblings and therapist provide effective care. Different measures have been established to care for these individuals at different ages. For instance, the first article enlightens oh how to establish the difference between a child with autism and one with attention deficit hyper reactivity disorder through errors in their handwriting. On the other hand, the second article discusses how social networks contribute to social participations for youths with autism and learning disorder. Although the topics of discussion are different the basis is the same; how to differentiate autism from similar illnesses using different parameters. The third article talks about existence of bullying for children with autism and how it can be handled. As such, the ultimate goal of the writer is to establish the challenges that children with autism face. Although all the readings cover different subjects, all are have an ultimate objective in providing efficient care for people with autism whether children, youth, or adults. The readings also educate on the effects of autism in academics, daily routines as well as social lives of the affected individuals. More so, the roles of different shareholders in caring for this individuals are outlined.
Caring for Autistic Individuals
Johnson, B. P., Papadopoulos, N., Fielding, J., Tonge, B., Phillips, J. G., & Rinehart, N. J.
(2013). A quantitative comparison of handwriting in children with high-functioning
autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum
Disorders, 7(12), 1638-1646.
Summary This article focused on establishing the difference in handwriting between
children suffering from attention deficit hyper- reactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with highfunctioning autism (HFA) to establish the effects of this disorders in academic welfare of the
children. The author achieved this by having children duplicate words cat and dog repeatedly
paying attention to space, size errors and speed. The study involved 49 participants all boys
between ages of 7 and 14 years who had to complete the handwriting performance test (HPT).
The base of this study is to illustrate how HFA and ADHD affect children in their academics
limiting their expression through writing. The findings of this task indicate the existence of
writing impairments in these children, and therefore there need tailored writing therapies. As it
has been found in other studies, ADHD and HFA significantly affects the writing speed of the
individuals. However, it has been found that other factors contribute to the lower writing speed.
Critique This article has established the differences that exist between the handwriting of
children with HFA and those with ADHD. However, the study is limited in that the sample size
was small. Also the study has failed to deduce the relationship between this two disorder in terms
of gender, and severity.
Application The findings are applicable for caregivers especially teachers who care for
autistic children to determine how to assist them in class. It gives teachers guidelines on
CARING FOR AUTISTIC INDIVIDUALS
how to intervene for children with different disorders.