The American Cancer Society estimates that by the end of 2012, more than 226,000
women will be diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 241,000 men will be
diagnosed with prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2012a; American Cancer
Society 2012b). With such prevalence of women’s and men’s cancers, patient education
and preventive services are essential. In clinical settings, advanced practice nurses must
assist physicians in educating patients on risk factors, preventive services, and for
patients diagnosed with cancer, on potential drug treatments. The clinical implications
of women’s and men’s cancer greatly depend on early detection, which is primarily
achieved through preventive services. In this Assignment, you consider the short-term
and long-term implications of cancer and drug treatments associated with women’s and
men’s health, as well as appropriate preventive services.
�Select a type of cancer associated with women’s or men’s health such as breast,
cervical, or ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in men.
�Locate and review articles examining the type of cancer you selected.
�Review the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force on any type of cancer you selected.
Think about available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients
at risk of this type of cancer. This information is on the web
�Select two of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior.
Reflect on how these factors might impact decisions related to preventive services.
�Consider drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you
selected including short-term and long-term implications of the treatments.
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
�Describe available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients
at risk of the type of cancer you selected.
�Explain how the factors you selected might impact decisions related to preventive
�Describe drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you
selected. Explain the short-term and long-term implications of these treatments
�Make sure that you have introduction and conclusion
Application: Cancer and Women’s and Men’s Health
Cancer is characterized with uncontrolled and abnormal cell multiplication in the
human body, mainly appearing as tumors or malignant growth. Cancer has the capability of
spreading to others parts of the human body through the blood stream and also through the
lymphatic system (Sampson & Fenlon, 2002). According to the statistics compiled by
American Cancer Society, it was noted that most women suffer from breast cancers while
most men suffer from prostate cancer. Advanced patient nursing in clinical settings have the
responsibilities of working together with the physicians in educating patients on preventative
APPLICATION: CANCER AND WOMEN’S AND MEN’S HEALTH 2
services, on risk factors and possible drug treatments for the patients already suffering from
the disease. Clinical implications are directed at detecting cancer at the early stages, which
makes it easy to cure and manage the disease (Grimm et al, 2003).
Breast cancer is part of the cancer family that originates from the tissues of the breast.
It is common along the lobules and milk ducts. Cancers at the ducts are referred to as ductal
carcinomas and the cancers at the lobules are referred by the term lobular carcinomas. It has
been noted that breast cancer occurs both among the mammals and humans, with majority of
the cases in human beings among the women, although a number of men are diagnosed with
breast cancer (Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, 2012).
Screening of the breast cancer is part of the community sensitization on the diseases,
if a patient has breast cancer; treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. Common
treatment models identify with medications which relates to chemotherapy and hormonal
therapy, surgery, immunotherapy and radiation. Surveys have indicated that surgery offers
the best benefits since there are high chances that the patient gets cured of breast cancer,
especially if the disease is detected at the early stages (Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, 2012).
Surgery in most cases is administered together with chemotherapy regimens. Radiation on the
other hand offers high chances of patient survival and improves on relapse rates. Radiation in
most cases is performed just after the surgery to conserve the breast. USPSTF has supported
mammography screening in women aged forty years and above, in order to detect breast
cancer at the early stages (Sampson & Fenlon, 2002).
Prostate cancer develops along the prostate which is a glad in the reproductive
systems of males. It has been noted that majority of the prostate cancer are characterized with
slow growing, although in the modern world, there has been cases of prostate cancers that are
APPLICATION: CANCER AND WOMEN’S AND MEN’S HEALTH 3
aggressive (Cohen, 2013). In a number of cases, it has been noted that prostate cancers
metastasize to other body parts especially to the lymph nodes and bones. Prostate cancer is
characterized with pains in the region, challenges during sexual contact, erectile dysfunction
and challenges while the patient is urinating among other challenges (Grimm et al, 2003).
Prostate cancer varies with continents with East and South Asia showing sparingly as
compared to the United States and Europe. Prostate cancer is common with men aged fifty
years and above. Detecting prostate cancer is a big challenge, since the disease does not show
any symptoms, and most men do not engage therapy; eventually prostate cancer in men kills
the patients with other opportunistic diseases (Cohen, 2013).
Prostate cancer is facilitated by diet, genetics and poor lifestyles. Although light
pollution contributes to cases of prostate cancer; prostate cancer is tested through biopsy,
physical examination symptoms and through prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In 2012,
USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force) discouraged prostate cancer
screening through the PSA method. It was argued that PSA led to over-treatment and over-
diagnoses of patients suffering from the disease although it was asymptomatic (Cohen, 2013).
USPSTF argued that testing of prostate cancer had little benefits as the harms continued to
kill the patients.
Strategies of managing prostate cancer are guided by the spread of the disease within
the human body. Low risk tumors are managed through active surveillance. It has been noted
that common treatments with the intentions of curing the disease involve surgery,
cryosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy at the advanced stages of
the disease (Grimm et al, 2003). There are studies that have proved that men engaging in
masturbation have low risk of acquiring prostate cancer.
APPLICATION: CANCER AND WOMEN’S AND MEN’S HEALTH 4
USPSTF consists of experts who work independently in the line of primary care and
prevention of diseases. USPSTF has been concerned with evidence and the accrued
effectiveness of the critical information in delivering recommendations pertaining clinical
preventative services; USPSTF works under the United States Department of Health and
Human Services with the intention of improving on quality and research in healthcare in the
United States (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2012).
In conclusion, cancer is a treatable disease if noted at the early stages, the world is
facing modernization due to acceleration of socializations and globalization, changing
lifestyles in human beings has accelerated the rate of cancer in the society. There is a need of
sensitizing the community on preventative models, particularly basing on lifestyle and
management of cancer for the people suffering from the disease (Grimm et al, 2003). There
are different cancers in the world, depending on the origin of the cancerous cells; breast
cancer is common among the women while prostate cancer is common among the men.
Cohen, J. S. (2013). Prostate Cancer Breakthroughs: New Tests, New Treatments, Better
Options — A Step-by-Step Guide to Cutting Edge Diagnostic Tests and 8 Medically-
Proven Treatments. New York: Oceansong Publishing.
Grimm, P. et al. (2003). The Prostate Cancer Treatment Book. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center. (2012). The Mayo Clinic Breast Cancer Book. Epsom, Surrey,
England: Good Books.
APPLICATION: CANCER AND WOMEN’S AND MEN’S HEALTH 5
Sampson, V. & Fenlon, D. (2002). The Breast Cancer Book. London: Ebury Publishing.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2012). The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services:
Report of the United States Preventive Services Task Force. London: International