*Select one of the following assessment tools or diagnostic tests to explore for the purposes
of this Discussion:
-Physical tests for sore throat (inspecting the throat, palpating the head and neck lymph
nodes, listening to breath sounds)
-Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test
-Body-mass index (BMI) using waist circumference for adults
*Search for credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you selected. What is
its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
*Examine the literature and resources you located for information about the validity and
reliability of the test or tool you selected. What issues with sensitivity, specificity, and
predictive values are related to the test or tool?
*Are there any controversies or issues related to any of these tests or tools?
*Consider any ethical dilemmas that could arise by using these tests or tools.
**Write a description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you selected is used in
health care. Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability,
and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include current
references (<5yrs old)in appropriate APA formatting.
Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests: Dix-Hallpike test
The Nylen-Barany or Dix-Hallpike test is the diagnostic maneuver utilized for identifying
BPPV (Benigh Paraxysmal Positional Vertigo). When performing the test, the patient is usually
sat upright and has the legs extended. The head is then rotated at approximately 45 degrees. The
patient lies down backwards quickly with the head adjusted at twenty degrees of extension. The
eyes are observed for 45 minutes since there is a feature 5-10 seconds latency period before
nystagmus appears (Viirre, Purcell & Baloh, 2012). There is a positive test if rotational
ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTS 2
nystagmus occurs in the ear nearest to the ground. When there is a positive test, the rotator
nystagmus phase is towards the ear that is affected. The fast phase’s direction is defined by a
rotation of the eye’s top counter-clockwise or clockwise.
Some people decline taking the test as a result of physical limitations. The test might be
uncomfortable due to nausea and vertigo that may result. The test’s sensitivity is not one hundred
percent. Some patients with BPPV history will not indicate positive test result. There is 79%
estimated sensitivity and a 75% estimated specificity (Viirre, Purcell & Baloh, 2012). The results
of the test may be affect by the maneuver’s speed and the occiput’s plane. Patients may be tensed
about producing vertigo symptoms that might influence the test’s brisk passive movements. The
test’s maneuver is limited by obesity and musculoskeletal tissues (Viirre, Purcell & Baloh,
The test is mostly used in health provision because it is inexpensive and easy to use
where one examiner can administer it. It is recommendable not to perform it more than once
since demonstrating observable nystagmus, a characteristic of BPPV, is a bit difficult.
ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTS 3
Viirre, E., Purcell, I., & Baloh, R. W. (2012). The Dix‐Hallpike Test and The Canalith
Repositioning Maneuver. The Laryngoscope, 115(1), 184-187.